Acharya Kundkund

 Translated by A.N. Upadhye

 Book 1

 1. Here I pay obeisance to VArdhamana, the saviour, the promulgator of the law, who is saluted by the suras, Asuras and lords  of men, and who has washed off the dirt of destructive Karmas.  

2. (I pay obeisance) also to the remaining Tirthankaras (i.e., the promulgators of the creed) along with all siddhas (i.e., the liberated souls) whose nature is pure and to the sramanas (i.e., the saints) whose behaviour is characterised by knowledge, faith, conduct, penance and every.  

3. I pay obeisance to them collectively as well as individually and to the contemporary Arahantas in the Manusa region.  

4-5. After saluting Arahantas (i.e., Tirthankaras), Siddhas also Ganadharas (i.e., the direct disciples of Tirthankaras), the band of preceptors and all the saints, and after having taken tie life (i.e, a state of life, Asramna) of foremost knowledge and faith of  pure nature, I adopt equanimity whereby Nirvana is attained.  

6. Nirvana, along with the glories of Devas, Asuras and lords of men, accrues to a soul through conduct pre-eminently characterised by faith and knowledge.

 7. Verily this realisation is the Dharma, which, in turn, is pointed out as equanimity; and equanimity is the state of the self in  which infatuatory perturbation is absent.  

8. For the time being a substance is said to be constituted of that by which it is transformed; therefore the self should be recognised as Dharma, when there is developed the condition of Dharma.

 9. The Soul whose nature is amenable to modification comes to be auspicious, inauspicious or pure according as it develops auspicious, inauspicious or pure states (of consciousness).  

10. There is no substance without a modification and no modification without a substance; the existence of a thing is made up of substance, quality and modification.  

11. The self that has developed equanimity, if endowed with pure activities, attains heavenly happiness.  

12. By the rise of inauspicious activities, the soul wanders for long as a low-graded human being, a sub-human being and a hellish one being subject for ever to thousands of miseries.  

13. The happiness of those who are famous for their pure consciousness or serenity is transcendental, born from the self, supersensuous, incomparable, infinite and indestructible.  

14. That Sramana, who has well understood all things and the texts that explain them, who is endowed with self-control and penances, who is free from attachment, and to whom pleasure and pain are alike, is said to represent pure consciousness. (For the definition of Sutra, see Gatha 34).  

15. He, who has manifested pure consciousness and is free from (knowledge and connation-) obscuring, obstructive and deluding Karmic dust, has become self sufficient; and fully comprehends the objects of knowledge.  

16. The omniscient, who has realised his nature and is worshipped by the lords of all worlds, becomes self-sufficient; and he is called Svayambhu.  

17. Further, he represents a condition of the collocation of permanence, origination and destruction; though therein the origination is without destruction and the destruction devoid of origination.

 18. In fact, every entity is characterised by existence; and it is with regard to only one aspect that every object suffers origination and destruction.

 19. He develops knowledge and happiness after having exhausted the destructive Karmas, being endowed with excellent infinite strength and excessive lustre and after becoming supersensuous.

 *1. The miseries of those beings, that have faith in him who is the best among all things and who is respected by the foremost among gods of demons, are exhausted.

 20. In the case of the omniscient, the pleasure or pain is not physical, because he is endowed with super sensuousness: so it should be known.  

21. The omniscient who develops knowledge directly visualizes all objects and their modifications; he does never comprehend them through the sensational stages such as outliner grasp.  

22. Nothing is indirect to him who is himself ever omniscient and who is all-round rich in the qualities of all the organs of senses  though himself beyond the senses.  

23. The soul is con-extensive with knowledge; knowledge is said to be co-extensive with the object of knowledge; the object of knowledge comprises the physical and non-physical universe; therefore knowledge is omnipresent.  

24-25. He, who does not admit the soul to be co-extensive with knowledge, must indeed concede that the soul is either smaller or larger than knowledge. If the soul is smaller, the knowledge, being insentient, cannot know; if larger, how can it know in the absence of knowledge?  

26. The great Jina is everywhere and all the objects in the world are within him, since the Jina is an embodiment of knowledge  and since they are the objects of knowledge.

 27. The doctrine of Jina is that knowledge is the self and in the absence of the self there cannot be (any) knowledge; therefore, knowledge is the self, while the self is knowledge or anything else.

 28. The knower has knowledge for this nature and all the objects are within the range of the knowledge, just as the objects of sight are within the ken of the eye, though there is no mutual inherence.

 29. The knower, who is beyond sense-perception, necessarily knows and sees the whole world neither entering into nor entered into by the objects of knowledge, just as the eye sees the objects of sight.

 30. The knowledge operates on the objects, just as a sapphire, thrown in the milk, pervades the whole of it with its lustre.

 31. If those are not within the knowledge, knowledge cannot be all pervasive; the knowledge is all-pervasive, how then objects are not existing in it?  

32. The omniscient lord neither accepts nor abandons, nor transforms the external objectivity; he sees all around, and knows  everything completely.  

33. He, who clearly understands the self as of the nature of the knower on the authority of the scriptural knowledge, is called a srutakevalin by the sages that enlighten the world.  

34. That which is preached by the Jina through words, which are constituted of material substance, it called the sutra (or the sacred text); knowledge consists in knowing it, and hence the sacred text also is designated as knowledge.  

35. He who knows is knowledge; the self does not become a knower with knowledge (as an extraneous instrument). The very self develops knowledge, and all the objects stand (reflected) in the knowledge.  

36. Therefore the self is knowledge; the object of knowledge is the substance, which is said to be threefold; he substance

comprises the soul and the (five) other (substances), which are prone to modification.  

37. All modifications, present and absent, of all those types of substances, stand essentially (reflected) in the knowledge, as if in  the present.  

38. Those, which have never originated and those, in fact, that have been and are already destroyed are the absent  modifications; they are directly visualised in omniscience.  

39. If that omniscience would not directly visualise the future and past modifications, who then would call that knowledge  super-natural?  

40. It is declared that it is impossible to know the past and future for those who (are accustomed to) know the object by means of discrimination and other stages (of perception), when it has fallen within the range of the senses.  

41. That is called supersensuous knowledge which knows any substance, with or without space-points, with or without form,  and those modifications which have not come into existence and those which are destroyed.  

42. If the knower develops the influence of the object known, then he does not possess the knowledge which is born after the  destruction of Karmas; the great Jinas say that he who so develops (merely) enjoys the fruit of Karma.  

43. The great Jinas say that portions of Karmas are necessarily operating (and giving their fruit); he, who is infatuated with, or shows attachment or aversion towards, them, necessarily incurs bondage (of Karmas).  

44. In the case of Arahantas, at the time of their Arhatship, (certain activities like) standing, sitting, moving about and religious  discourse are natural (and necessary consequences of the Karmic fruition with no effort on their part), just as acting deceitfully is in the case of women.  

45. Arahantas owe their status to the fruits of merits (or meritorious Karmas); their activities are the consequences of the Karmic operations; their activities are called ksayiki (i.e., due to the destruction of Karmas), because they are free from infatuation etc.  

46. The transmigratory existence would be an impossibility in the case of all the embodied beings, if the soul itself is naturally  incapable of developing auspicious and inauspicious states.  

47. That knowledge is called ksayika (i.e., produced after the destruction of Karmas) which knows completely and simultaneously the whole range of variegated and unequal objectivity of the present and otherwise.  

48. He, who does not know simultaneously the objects of the three tenses and in the three worlds, cannot know even a single substance with its (infinite) modifications.  

49. A single substance has infinite modes and infinite are the classes of substances; if he does not know (them) simultaneously, how will he be able to know all of them?  

50. if the knower, after coming into contact with the objectivity, produces knowledge step by step; that knowledge cannot be eternal, neither can it be ksayika nor all-pervasive.  

51. The omniscience of the Jina knows simultaneously the (whole range of) variegated and unequal objectivity possible in all places and present in three tenses; indeed great is the glory of that knowledge !  

52. The soul (of the omniscient), though knowing all the things, does not transform itself (under their influence), does not receive (any-thing external), nor does it become one among them; and hence it is said to be without Karmic bondage.  

*2. Him ever adores the devoted world consisting of Devas, Asuras and lords of men; so do I devotedly adore him.  

53. Just as knowledge of various entities is super-sensitive with reference to non-concrete and sensitive with regard to concrete  things, so too is happiness; that which is the best of those (two) should be realized.  

54. That is pratyaksa knowledge which perceives (all) the non-concrete (things), among the concrete those (atoms etc.) that are beyond the scope of senses, those that are hidden and all others that are related to substances and also that are not.  

55. The soul itself is non-concrete (i.e., devoid of the sense-qualities); when it is embodied, it comes to be concrete; (thus, being coupled with senses,) it perceives the perceptible through (the stages of) outlinear grasp etc., or sometimes it does not.  

56. The sense-qualities of touch, taste, smell, colour and sound have a reference to material objects; the sense-organs can never grasp them simultaneously.  

57. The sense-organs are the foreign stuff; they can never be said to form the nature of the soul. How then what is perceived by them can be direct (pratyaksa or immediate) for the soul?  

58.Perception of things through a foreign agency is called paroksa, indirect or mediate; whatever is perceived by the soul alone  is pratyaksa, direct or immediate?

 59. That self-born, perfect, and pure knowledge which spreads over infinite things and which is free from (the stages of perception such as) outlinear grasp etc., is called the real happiness.

 60. Whatever is known as omniscient knowledge, that alone is a condition of happiness, no (trace of) miserly is said to be there, since the destructive Karmas are exhausted.

 61. (In the omniscient) the knowledge reaches the very verge of objectivity, and the vision extends over the physical and superphysical universe; in Him all that is undesirable is destroyed and whatever is desirable is achieved.

 62. The abhavya souls do not believe the statement that the happiness of those who are free from destructive Karmas is the best of all, while the bhavya souls accept it (and believe).

 63. Lords of men, Asuras and Amaras, harassed by senses that are born with them, being unable to bear with the pain, sport themselves with attractive objects of senses.

 64. Know that misery to be natural for those who are attached to the objects of senses; if it is not natural, there would not be any attempt for the objects of senses.

 65. It is not the body, but the very soul itself, that develops happiness having obtained desired objects that are naturally endowed with the qualities of touch etc.  

66. Really speaking, the body does not make any embodied being happy even in heaven; but the soul itself develops happiness  or misery coming under the influence of the objects of enjoyment.  

67. If the visual faculty of people could remove darkness, then the lamp is of no avail; so when the soul itself is happiness, what then the objects of enjoyment contribute?  

68. Just as the sun, all by himself is lustrous and warm, and a deity of the sky, so also the liberated soul is (endowed with) knowledge and happiness, and is a divinity of the world.  

*3. He is Arhan (i.e., worshipful one) whose glory consists of lustre, conation, knowledge, supernatural accomplishment, happiness, affluence and the leading lordship of the three worlds.  

*4. I repeatedly offer obeisance to the Siddha, who is superior and never suffering in his merits, who holds lordship over men and Devas and who is ever (hereafter) bound to take birth anymore.  

69. The soul, that is devoted to the worship of God, ascetic and the preceptor, to the offering of gifts, to virtuous conduct, and  to the observance of fasts, is of auspicious activities (or manifestation of consciousness).  

70. The soul, endowed with auspicious manifestation of consciousness, is born as a sub-human or human being or a god, and during that period, obtains different kinds of sensual pleasures.  

71. It is evident from the doctrine that the happiness even of the gods is not self-established; oppressed by physical urge, they sport themselves with attractive objects of senses.  

72. If men, denizens of hell, sub-human beings and gods (indiscriminately) suffer misery incidental of body, then of what avail is the (distinction of) auspicious or inauspicious activity of the soul?  

73. Indra and other sovereigns, quite engrossed as if they are happy, nourish their bodies etc. by means of enjoyments that are the consequences of auspicious activities.  

74. If there are, in fact, different merits resulting from auspicious activities (or mental condition), they (merely) occasion a sensual thirsts to all the beings among whom the gods come last (in the order of enumeration).  

75. Moreover those beings, with their thirst enhanced, pained with desires and burning with misery, hanker after the pleasures of senses and experience them till their death.  

76. Happiness derived through sense-organs is dependent, amendable to disturbances, terminable, a cause of bondage and dangerous; and hence it is misery in disguise.  

77. He, who does not admit that there is no difference between merit and demerit, wanders in this horrible and boundless   transmigratory existence muffled in delusion.  

78. Thus, knowing the nature of reality, he, who does not entertain attachment or aversion for any object, destroys all physical pain, being endowed with pure manifestation of consciousness.  

79. Having abandoned sinful activities and proceeding on the path of auspicious conduct, if one does not abandon delusion etc., he cannot realize the pure self.  

*5. He is the God who is known for his austerities and self-control, who is pure, who paves the path of heaven and liberation, who is worshipped by the lords of Amaras and Ausras and who stands at the summit of the physical world.  

*6. Those men attain eternal happiness who salute the God among the gods of gods, who is foremost among the great saints, and who is the preceptor of the three worlds.  

80. He, who knows the Arahanta with respect to substantiality, quality and modification, realizes himself; and his delusion, in fact, dwindles into destruction.  

81. The soul, being free from delusion and having grasped well the reality of the self, realizes the pure self, if it abandons attachment and aversion.  

82. It is in this way that even all the Arahantas have destroyed portions of Karmas; preaching the same they attained Nirvana: my obeisance to them.  

*7. Bow unto those persons who are pure in faith, foremost in knowledge, practising perfect conduct, and who deserve respect, honour and gifts.  

83. The deluded notion of the soul about substances etc. is called delusion, muffled therein and developing attachment or aversion the soul is baffled.  

84. Various kinds of bondage become possible, when the soul develops delusion, attachment or aversion; therefore they are to be destroyed.  

85. False perception of things, absence of kindness towards subhuman and human beings and indulging with objects of pleasure-these are the characteristics of delusion or infatuation.  

86. He, who regularly understands the reality from the Jaina scriptures with direct and other proofs, exhausts the heap of  delusion; therefore the scripture should be studied.  

87. Substances, qualities and their modifications are (technically) signified by the term artha; and among them, it is said, that the substance is the substratum of qualities and modifications.  

88. He, who destroys delusion, attachment and aversion, after having grasped the discourse of the Jina, escapes from all miseries within a short time.

 89. He, who really knows his soul as constituted of knowledge and others as only related with it as substances, effects the destruction of delusion.

 90. Therefore, if the soul aspires after the delusionless state of the self, it should understand from the Jaina creed the self and the non-self among the (scheme of) substances with regard to their quantities.

 91. He, who, in his state of Sramanya (i.e., asceticism), never believes in these substances with their closely related generality of existence and various special qualities, is not a Sramana; and religious purity is not possible for him.

 92. The great souled Sramana, who has put an end to his delusive vision, who is expert in scriptures and who has established himself in conduct free from attachment, is qualified as Dharma.  

*8. He acquires religious merit who, at his sight, is pleased, stands up and respects him with salutation, obeisance etc.

 *9. Thereby, human and sub-human beings, obtaining the grades of gods and men, have their desires ever fulfilled with wealth  and affluence.  

Book II

 *1. Having saluted and having constantly concentrated my mind on him, I shall discourse in short upon the knowledge  consisting in the ascertainment of the highest objectivity.  

93. The object of knowledge is made up of substances, which are said to be characterised by qualities, and with which,  moreover, are (associated) the modifications; those, who are deluded by modifications, are false believers.  

94. Those beings, that are attached to modifications, are pointed out as the followers of the foreign creed (para-samayika); and  those who establish themselves in the nature of the self, are to be known as the followers of one's own creed.  

95. That is called a substance which is endowed with qualities and accompanied by modifications and which is coupled with  origination, destruction and permanence without leaving its nature (of existence).  

96. The nature of the substance is existence accompanied by qualities by its variegated modifications and by origination, destruction and permanence for all the time.  

97. Here, amongst various characteristics, existence in described as one all-comprising characteristic by the great Jina, when (he was) clearly propounding the (religious) creed.  

98. The Jinas have truly declared that the substance is naturally (and essentially) proved to be existential; and it is as well proved from the scriptures; he, who does not accept it, is a false believer.  

99. That existing entity established in its nature is the substance; the development of the substance with reference to qualities and modes (artha) is (also) its nature coupled with permanence, origination and destruction.  

100. There can be no origination without destruction, nor there is destruction without origination; origination and destruction are not possible in the absence of the permanent substantiality.  

101. Origination, permanence and destruction take place in modifications; modifications are (possible) necessarily in a substance, therefore the substance forms the base of all of them.  

102. A substance, in fact, is intimately united with the (three) conditions signified by the terms: origination, permanence and destruction at one and the same moment; therefore, really speaking, the substance is (the substratum of) all the three.  

103. In a substance some modification originates and some other passes away; but the substantiality neither originates nor is destroyed.  

104. The substance, which is not different from its (initial) existence, develops of its own accord some other quality leaving the one; therefore, modifications in qualities are further called the substance.  

105. If the substance is not an existing entity, it must be either non-existing or again something else than a substance; in either case how can it be a substance? Therefore, the substance is self-existent.

 106. It is the dictum of Mahavira and separateness (prathaktva) consists in having separated space-points; non-identity (anyatva) is the absence of identity; (between satta or existence and dravya or substance) there is no identity (na tadbhavam  perhaps the same as aradbhavah, non-identity), then how can those two be one?

 107. Substance is existing, quality is existing and modification is existing: so is the detailed scope of existence; the negation of any one of them, in fact, is that negation termed as non-identity.

 108. Really speaking what is substance is not quality, nor what is quality is substance; this is a case of non-identity and not of absolute negation: so it is pointed out.

 109. That condition, which in fact, forms the nature of the substance, is quality which is not different from its initial existence; that existing entity established in its nature is the substance: this is the doctrine of the Jina.

 110. There is nothing as quality nor as a modification in the absence of a substance; that substantiality is (a condition) of positive existence; therefore the substance is existence itself.

 111. In this manner, the substance forever retains its position, in its own nature, as endowed with positive and negative  conditions according as it is looked at from the substantial and the modificational viewpoints.

112. When the soul (in its course) is or will be born as a man, god or any one else, does it leave its substantiality? If it does not leave, how is it different (in different births)?

 113. A man (so long he has a human body) is not a god; nor is a god a man or a liberated being; if it is not so possible, how can their mutual non-difference be established?

 114. All substances are non-different from the substantial viewpoint, but again they are different from the modificational viewpoint, because of the individual modification pervading it for the time being. 115. According to some modification or the  other it is stated that a substance exists, does not exist, is indescribable, is both or otherwise.

 116. There is no modification (such as human or divine etc.) as such which is permanent; nor there is any activity (of mundane beings) which is not the outcome of their nature. Even if the highest Dharma is without fruit, the activity (of mundane beings) is not without a fruit.

 117. The Karma of the Nama type (i.e., the Nama-Karma which determines the various physical characteristics of the embodied beings) overcomes the nature of the soul with its nature, makes him a man, a sub-human being, a denizen of hell or a god.

 118. Men, denizens of hell, sub-human beings and gods who are, in fact, shaped by (their own) Nama-karma, have not realized their nature (of knowledge and bliss), developing as they are their Karmas.

119. In this world, in which modifications originate and pass away at every moment, nothing is absolutely produced or destroyed; what is production of one modification is the destruction of another; and thus origination and destruction are  different.

 120. In this world, therefore, there is nothing as such absolutely established in its nature; after all mundane existence is (only) an activity of the soul-substance which is moving (in four grades of existence).

 121. The soul tainted with Karma attains a condition mixed with Karma; thence Karma clings; therefore Karma is a condition (developed by passions etc.)

 122. The development of the soul is soul itself, and this activity (of development) pervades the soul; this activity is known   as  Karma, and hence the soul is not the (direct) agent of (material) Karmas.

 123. The soul develops into (or with) sentiency which, in turn, is said to be of three kinds, say with regard to knowledge, Karma and the fruit of Karma.

124. Knowledge is the comprehension of the objectivity (exactly as it is); whatever is done by the soul is Karma, which is of many kinds; the fruit of Karma is either happiness or misery.

125. The nature of the soul is development: this development is with reference to knowledge, Karma and the fruit; therefore, it  should be understood that knowledge, Karma and the fruit constitute the soul.

 126. When the Sramana is convinced that the soul itself is the agent, means, action, and the fruit, and if he does not develop anything (else as passions etc.), he realizes the pure self.

 127. Substance comprises Jiva, the sentient principle and Ajiva the non-sentient principle; Jiva is constituted of sentiency and  manifestation of consciousness; Ajiva is insentient, and the foremost of this class is matter.

 128. That space which is accompanied by matter and soul, which is rich with Kala (or time) and the two magnitudes (i.e., astikayas) of Dharma and Adharma (i.e., the principles of motion and rest) and which is eternal, is called Loka or the physical world.

 129. Of this physical world constituted of matter and souls, there take place a formation consisting of origination, permanence and destruction collectively or visually.

 130. The characteristics by which the sentient and non-sentient substances recognised are known as the special qualities called murta and amurta, concrete non-concrete.

 131. The qualities which are perceived by senses, which characterise the metal substances and which are manifold are murta or  concrete qualities; the qualities non-concrete substances are to be known as amurta or non-concrete.

 132. Colour, taste, smell and touch are found in matter from the finer molecule the gross earth; and sound is material and of various kinds.

133-134. The peculiar property of Akasa is to give room; of the Dharma-substance, to be a cause of movement; of Adharma, to be a cause of stationariness; Kala, to mark the continuity; of soul, the manifestation of consciousness; these to be known, in short, the peculiar characteristics of non-concrete substances.

 135. The souls, material bodies, principles of motion and rest and space: all possess innumerable space-points; but time has no space-points.

 *2. These five substances, leaving aside the time, are called astikayas or magnitudes; the word kaya signifies the collection of space-points.

 136. The sky or space pervades Loka and Aloka; Loka is occupied by the principles of motion and rest, by time which rests with the other two (viz., soul and matter) and by soul and matter.

 137. Just as there are points of space, so are there of the remaining (substances); a primary atom is without space-points, because (being an unit) it gives rise to the (measure of) space-point.

 138. The moment of time is without space-points; it is equal to the time required by that unit so substance measure by one Pradesa to traverse one spacepoint of the sky-substance.

 139. That much duration required for crossing from one to the other spatial point is (known as) Samaya, instant or moment; the objective entity before and after is time; samaya is lible to origination and destrcution.

 140. That much portion of the space occupied by one atom is called the space-point and it is capable of giving room to the atoms of all (substances).  

141. All substances (excepting time) have one, two, many, innumerable or even infinite space-points, while time has only one space-point viz., samaya, instant or moment.

 142. That samaya or instant, which has origination and destruction at one and the same moment, is (still) a samaya established in its nature.

 143. This is the essential nature of kalanu (the unit of time), all the while, that it undergoes what are called origination, permanence and destruction at one and the same moment.

144. That, which has not many space-points, nor even one space-point in order that it might be known (?), should be known as  void, which is something other than existence.

 145. The physical world is stable, eternal and (filled) complete with entities endowed with space-points; he, who knows it, is the soul endowed with four life essentials.

 146. Life-essentials of Jivas or souls are senses, bala (i.e., the channels of activities), duration of life and respiration.  

*3. Life-essentials (in details) are ten: five senses, three channels of activity, viz., of mind, speech and body, respiration and the duration of life.

 147. That which formerly lived, lives now and will live in future with the four life-essentials is the Jiva, the sentient principle; these life-essentials, moreover, are fashioned by material substances.

148. The soul endowed with life-essentials, bound by infatuatory and other Karmas, and enjoying the fruit of Karmas, is bound by other additional Karmas.

 149. If the Jiva, through delusion and hatred, causes harm to the life-essentials again and again.   

150. The soul tainted with Karma, so long as it does not give up attachment towards external objects the foremost of which is the body, possesses other life essentials again and again.

 151. He, who has conquered his senses etc. and meditates the pure manifestation of consciousness of his self, will not be tainted by Karmas; how then can the life-essentials follow him?

152. The transformation of one condition into another, in the case of the soul (when coming into contact with matter) whose  existential nature is (already) determined, is the modification with its varieties of figuration etc.

153. Human, hellish, sub-human and divine modifications of the soul are mutually different with regard to the figuration (of  the body) etc., because of the operation of Nama-karman.

 154. The nature of the substance established in its existential condition is said to be three-fold (viz., consisting of origination, permanence and destruction); he, who knows it in detail, will not be infatuated with foreign substances.

 155. The soul is constituted of the manifestation of consciousness; manifestation of consciousness is towards knowledge and cognition; the manifestation of consciousness of the soul is either auspicious, or inauspicious.

 156. If the manifestation of consciousness is auspicious, the soul accumulates merit; in inauspicious, sin; in the absence of both there is no accumulation (of Karmas).

 157. He, who recognises the great Jinas, attends on Siddhas as well as saints and is compassionate towards living beings, has an auspicious resultant of consciousness.

 158. He, who is steeped in sensual pleasures and passions, who is given to false scriptures, evil intentions and wicked words, and who is cruel and goes astray, has an inauspicious resultant of consciousness.

 159. Being free from inauspicious manifestation of consciousness and without the auspicious one towards foreign substances and being indifferent, I meditate on my self that is essentially constituted of knowledge.

 160. I am neither the body, nor the mind, nor the speech, nor the cause thereof, nor the agent, nor the commissioner, nor the consentor of the doers.

 161. It is pointed out that body, mind and speech are constituted of material substances; and the material substance, in turn, is a lump of atomic substances.

 162. I am neither made of matter, nor is the matter lumped by me; therefore, I am neither the body nor the maker of that body.  

163. The primary atom has no space-points; it is an unit of space-points and itself having no quality of sound; being arid or cohesive it comes to have two or more space-points.

 164. It is said that the points of aridness or cohesiveness of an atom, because of transformation, increasing by one form one onwards, attain infinity.

 165. Atomic modifications, cohesive or arid, whether (having) even or odd points, bind mutually, when ordinarily there is the difference of two points, the minimum point being excepted.

 166. An atom with two points of cohesiveness binds with an atom of four points of cohesiveness or aridness; and that of three points with that of five points.

 167. The gross entities (or molecules) which have two or more space-points and the subtle or gross earth-water-fire-air bodies come to have different shapes according to their modifications (of the qualities of cohesiveness or aridness).

 168. The physical world is thickly packed everywhere with material bodies, subtle and gross, capable of being received or not (by the soul).

 169. The molecules capable of becoming Karmas, coming into contact with the (passional) conditions or transformations of the soul, are developed into Karmas; and not that they are so transformed by the soul.

 170. Those material bodies, which are transformed into Karmas, go to form the bodies, when the soul is passing into one more body again.

171. The physical body, the transformatory body, the electric body, the translocational body and the Karmic body: all these are made of material substance.

 172. Know that the (pure) soul is without (the qualities of) taste, colour, smell, touch, and sound; it is all the quality of sentiency; it is beyond inferential mark; and it has no definable shape.

 173. Material objects possessing the qualities of colour etc., mutually bind on account of their qualities of touch (viz., cohesiveness and aridness); the (nature of the) soul is quite opposed to this; then how is it that material Karmas bind it?

 174. The soul, which is without colour etc., perceives and knows objects endowed with colour etc. and the qualities; similarly the (case of) bondage is to be understood.

 175. The soul, which is constituted of the manifestation of consciousness, conceives infatuation, attachment or aversion having obtained various objects of pleasure; so again it is bounds up with them (i.e., the passional states).

 176. It is by the attitude, with which the soul perceives and knows the objects of senses, that it is tinged; and it is thereby, moreover, the Karma binds: so goes the doctrine.  

177. Bondage between material bodies is due to their qualities of touch etc. (i.e, cohesiveness and aridness); and that of the soul is due to attachment etc.; mutual interpenetration is said to be the bondage of soul and matter.

 178. The soul has space-points, and in those space-points material bodies penetrate and remain as it may be possible; they pass away (according to their duration) or remain bound.

 179. When the soul develops attachment, Karma binds; when it is without attachment, it becomes free from Karmas; know this to be in short the real description of the bondage of the soul.

 180. Bondage results from the modification which consists of attachment, aversion and infatuation. Infatuation and aversion are inauspicious; while attachment is either auspicious or inauspicious.

 181. It is already remarked that auspicious and inauspicious attitudes towards other (i.e., external) things lead to merit and sin (respectively). According to the doctrine (of the Jina), the attitude, which is (inclined) towards neither, is the cause of the destruction of misery.

182. (All) the living embodiments, immovable like the earth etc. and the movable, are different from the (essential nature of) soul; and the soul is essentially different from them.

183. He, who having realized (or accepted) his nature, does not understand the self and the non-self (and the difference between them), conceives, through infatuation, and attitude: I am this and this is mine.

184. The soul, effecting the development of its consciousness, is the agent of its own development; it is not the agent of all those conditions constituted of material substances.  

185. The soul, though standing in the midst of matter all the while, neither accepts nor abandons, nor is the agent of material Karmas.

 186. The soul, at present (i.e., in this transmigratory condition), being the agent of its own modification constituted out of its own substance, is sometimes bound up with or released from Karmic dust.

 187. When the soul, under the influence of attachment or aversion develops itself into auspicious or inauspicious resultant of consciousness, the Karmic dust pours into it in the form of knowledge-obscuring etc.

 4.* The fruitition of suspicious or inauspicious types (of Karmas) is intensified by pure and soiled attitudes (respectively); but in reverse to that, all the types have minimum intensity.

 188. The soul, which has space-points, when soiled by infatuation, attachment and aversion, is clung by Karmic dust; and that is called bondage in the scripture.

 189. The Arahantas have preached to the ascetics or saints this discourse in short on the bondage of the soul from the realistic standpoint of view; the same from the ordinary standpoint of view is something different.

 190. He, who does not abandon the notion of mineness over the body and possessions that `I am this and this is mine', gives up the sramanya (i.e., the status of a saint) and goes astray.

 191. `I do not belong to others, nor do other belong to me; I am mere knowledge'; he, who meditates thus in concentration, comes to meditate on his (pure) self.

192. Thus I consider myself to be constituted of knowledge and faith, supersensuous, a great objectivity, eternal, stable, independent and pure.

193. Bodies, possessions, happiness, misery, friends or enemies are not the eternal associates of the soul; the soul is eternally constituted of the manifestation of consciousness.

 194. He, who, knowing this and being pure in self, meditates on that highest Self, whether he is a layman or an ascetic, destroys the dangerous knot of delusion.

 195. He, who has destroyed the knot of delusion, who has overthrown attachment and aversion and is indifferent to pleasure and pain in his condition of a Sramana, attains eternal happiness.

 196. He, who has destroyed the dirt of delusion, has abstained from objects of pleasure, has restrained his mind and is established in his own nature, becomes a meditator of the self.

197. What does that great sage, who has destroyed the thick destructive Karmas, who directly comprehends all entities and realities, who has reached the end of the objects of knowledge and who is free from doubts, meditate upon?

 198. Being free from all hindrances, being all round rich in knowledge and happiness of all the senses (together), being beyond the reach of senses and having no senses, he meditates on the highest happiness.

 199. My salutation to that path leading to Nirvana and to those who, following it, attained the states of Sramanas, of Jinas, of Jinendras and of Siddhas.

 200. Therefore, thus realizing the soul as the knower by nature, I give up the notion of mineness and have come to adopt the (notion of) non-attachment.

 *5. My repeated salutations to those liberated saints whose faith (darsana) in pure, who are endowed with the manifestation of consciousness with respect to right knowledge and who are happy without hindrances.


Book III


201-202. Having repeatedly saluted the Siddhas, the foremost great Jinas and the saints, may he adopt asceticism, if the desires for escape from misery, after taking leave of the family of relations, being let off by elders, wife and children, and being intent on the cultivation of knowledge, faith, conduct, austerities and strength.

 203. He prostrates himself before a (great) saint, the head of an ascetic band, rich in virtues, endowed with distinctive family, form the age, and honoured by ascetics, saying `Admit me'; and he is favoured (with admission to the ascetic community).

 204. I do not belong to others, nor do others belong to me; there is nothing that is mine here; thus determined and conquering his senses, he adopts a form similar to that in which he is born (yatha-jata-rupadharah).

 205-206. The (external) emblem (of a Jaina saint) consists in possessing a form in which one is born, in pulling out hair and moustache, in being pure, in being free from harm unto beings etc., and in not attending to the body (apratikarma); the (internal) Jaina (ascetic) emblem, which is the cause of negation of births, consists in being free from infatuation and preliminary sins, in being endowed with purity of manifestation of consciousness and activities, and in having no desire for anything else.

 207. Adopting this (ascetic) emblem (both external and internal), at the hands of an excellent preceptor, bowing to him and  (then) hearing the course of duties consisting of vows, when one begins to practise it, he becomes a Sramana (i.e., an ascetic).

 208-209. (Five) vows, (fivefold) carefulness, control of (five) senses, pulling out the hair, (sixfold) avasyakas (or essentials), nakedness, not taking bath, sleeping on ground, not cleaning the teeth, taking meals in a standing posture and taking only one meal a day-these, in fact, have been prescribed, as the primary virtues of the ascetic, by the great Jinas; he, who is negligent about them, is a defaulter (who needs to be reestablished on the correct path).

 210. That preceptor, at whose hands they accept the (ascetic) emblem, is known as pravrajya-dayaka (i.e., the teacher who initiates them into the ascetic fold); the remaining ascetics, who help to re-establish them in the right course, when they have committed certain defaults, are called niryapaka.

 211-212. When the monk is carefully conducting (his) physical activities, if there is a default, to him is then prescribed a (lustral) course of conduct preceded with alocana (i.e., the report of sins committed); the defaulter monk should approach a monk (practically) expert in the Jaina doctrine, should confess before him and practise what is prescribed by him.

213. Whether in the company of his preceptor or alone, without (any) breach with regard to his ascetic course, an ascetic should remain ever avoiding the attachments.

 214. That is perfect asceticism, when one practises his course ever intent on knowledge preceded by faith and exerting in the (practice of) primary virtues.

 215. A Sramana does not entertain attachment either for food or for fast, either for residence or for touring, or for paraphernalia, or for co-monks, or for unhealthy gossip.

216. Careless activities of a monk when sleeping, sitting, standing and walking, are always known as continuous harm unto living beings.

217. Let the being die or not, harm unto living beings is certain (to occur) in the case of him who is careless in conduct; there is no bondage for him, who is mindful of the items of carefulness, by mere (physical) harm.

 *1-2. If a subtle living organism is crushed or killed with the contact of the feet in movement of an ascetic who is careful in his walking towards his destiny, the scripture does not hold him liable even for a slight bondage as a consequence of that; (the case is similar to the statement:) it is infatuation alone that is called paraphernalia on the authority of the spiritual lore.

 218. A Sramana of careless conduct is called murderer of the six (classes of) embodied beings; if he carefully practises (his course of conduct), he is forever uncontaminated like the lotus on water.

 219. There is or there is no bondage, when a being dies in the course of physical activities; bondage is certain from attachment to paraphernalia, therefore ascetics give up everything.

 220. If there is no renunciation (absolutely) free from (any) expectation, the monk cannot have the purification of mind; how can he effect the destruction of Karmas, when he is impure in mind?

 *3-5. (If you were to say that) it is (found) stated in certain texts that a monk accepts a piece of clothing and possesses a pot; (we have to ask) how can he (with these) be independent and without activities involving preliminary sin? If he accepts a piece of clothing, gourdbowl and anything else, necessarily there is involved harm unto living beings, and there is disturbance in his mind: he accepts the pot and the piece of cloth, cleanses them, washes them, carefully dries them in the sun, protects them and is afraid of other (that they might take them away.)

 221. (If he accepts these things) how then is he not liable to infatuation, preliminary sin and lack of control?; similarly when a monk is attached to external things how will he realize his self?

 222. A monk would so conduct (his course of duties), understanding the (necessities of) time and place, that, when using the paraphernalia, there should not be any default (with respect to primary virtues) in accepting and abandoning it.

 223. Let the monk accept that little (quantity of) paraphernalia, which does not involve bondage (i.e., which is sanctioned by the scripture,) which si not desired for by men who are self-controlled (i.e., which is essential for maintaining self-control) and which does not give rise to (any) infatuation etc.

 224. Even the slightest thought about the body, on the part of him who aims at the negation of births, is considered as attachment; therefore the great Jinas have preached non-attention (towards the body).

*6. The religion preached by great saints (i.e., the Tirthankaras) does not aim at (happiness etc. in) this or the next world (but only at liberation); then how is it that, in this religion, women are prescribed an alternative ascetic emblem consisting of clothing etc.)?

 *7. In fact, liberation is not said to be possible for women in that very birth; therefore an alternative (ascetic) emblem is prescribed for women befitting them.

 *8. The nature of these (viz., women) is naturally full of negligence (Pramada), and hence they are designated as pramada; therefore these women (pramada) are said to be plentifully negligent.   

*9. As a matter of fact, women are liable to infatuation, aversion, fear and disgust; in their mind (there is) crookedness of a varied type; therefore they cannot attain liberation (in that very birth).

*10. There is not a single woman, in the whole world who is without even one of these above faults; their limbs are not  closed (?) (samudam), and hence they need clothing.

 *11. In their case there is always the mental mobility and fickleness and the periodical oozing of blood (at the time of monthly course) wherein grow subtle human organisms. *12 There is said to be the growth of subtle organisms in the female organ of generation, in between their breasts and in the parts of their naval and armpit; then how can self-control be possible for them?

 *13. Women cannot effect (complete) exhaustion of Karmas, even though they are pure in faith, are endowed with scriptural study and practise a severe course of conduct.

 *14. Therefore the Jinas have prescribed for them an emblem befitting their nature (i.e., consisting of clothing etc.); those, that are endowed with family, form and age and practise that course, are called nuns (sramani).

 *15. He is a fit one for accepting the ascetic emblem who hails from the three castes (varnas), whose limbs are healthy, whose age can stand the austerities, who is of winning appearance and whose character is free from any scandal.

 *16. The loss of three jewels is said to be the (greatest) loss by the Jinas, even by any other loss one does not remain fit for observing sallekhana, i.e., the voluntary submission of death.

 225. According to Jainism the (acceptable) ascetic paraphernalia is said to consist of the bodily form in which one is born, the words of the teacher, (disciplinary) modesty and the study of the sacred texts.

 226. He is Sramana who has no desires in this world and no attachment for the next, whose diet and touring are proper, and who is free from passions.

 *17. The ascetic becomes negligent or careless, when he is affected by the four (passions), anger etc. and unhealthy gossip, by the objects of senses, and by affection and drowsiness.

 227. (Really speaking) the soul of the monk does not eat (any) food; that is the (internal) penance; and the ascetics are after  that. The ascetics are (as good as) without food, even if they accept faultless food.

 228. The Sramana possesses the body alone, and even towards the body he pays no attention of mineness; he yokes the same to austerities without concealing his ability.

 229. (The proper food consists of) one meal which is not stomachful, in the form in which it is obtained, which is obtained by begging and by day, wherein there is no consideration of juices and which does not contain honey and flesh.

 *18-19. There is an incessant growth of subtle organisms of the nigoda class (similar to the colour of the flesh etc.) in the pieces of flesh cooked or raw and in the course of being cooked; he, who eats or touches the pieces or raw or baked flesh, kills, in fact, a host of many crores of beings.

 *20. The unauthorised food (i.e., not sanctioned by the scriptures), which has fallen in the (cavity of) palms, should not be given to others; he is unfit to eat (again) after giving it (to others); if he eats, he must repent for that.

 230. A monk, young or old, exhausted or diseased, should practise a course of conduct fit for him in a manner that there is no violation of primary virtues.

 231. If a Sramana observes his course of conduct understanding the (nature of) food, touring, place, time, physical labour, his forbearance and his bodily condition, he incurs the least bondage.

 232. He, who is concentrated on one thing alone, is a Sramana; such a concentration is possible for him whose comprehension of the objectivity is certain; this certainty (of knowledge) is possible from the study of scriptures; therefore application to the (study of) scriptures is of the highest importance.

 233. The Sramana, who is lacking in the study of scriptures, does not know his self and the things other than his self; without knowing the objectivity how can the monk destroy the Karmas?

 234. The saints have scriptures as their eyes; all the living beings have sense-organs as their eyes; the gods have clairvoyance as their eyes; and the Siddhas have eyes in every way.

 235. All the objects, with their various qualities and modifications, are known from the scriptures: those, who know them learning from the scriptures, are the Sramanas.

236. He, whose right faith is not preceded by the (study of) scripture, cannot possess self-control: so says the sacred text; and if he has no moral discipline, how can he be a Sramana?

 237. One does not attain liberation (merely) by the (study of) scripture, if he has no faith with regard to the nature of reality; or one who has faith cannot attain Nirvana if he is devoid of moral discipline.

 238. The man of knowledge, who is controlled in three ways, destroys within a breath the Karma which a man devoid of knowledge could destroy in hundred thousand crores of lives.

239. Further, he, who has an atom of attachment towards body etc., cannot attain liberation, even if he knows all the scriptures.

 *21. Especially in ascetic life, moral discipline is said to consist in renunciation, in abstaining from activities (leading to sin), in refraining from sensual pleasures and in destroying the passions.

 240. That Sramana, who has five-fold carefulness, who is controlled in three ways, who has curbed his five senses, who has subdued his passions and who is completely endowed with faith and knowledge, is called self-disciplined.

 241. Enemies and the members of the family, happiness and misery, praise and censure, a clod of earth and (a lump of) gold, and even life and death are alike to the Sramana.

 242. He, who is simultaneously applied to (the cultivation of) the trio of right faith, knowledge and conduct, is said to have attained concentration; and he has perfect asceticism.

243. If an ignorant ascetic, accepting an external object, falls a prey to delusion, attachment or aversion, he is bound by various Karmas.

 244. In an ascetic, develops neither infatuation nor attachment nor aversion, he necessarily destroys various Karmas.   

245. According to the (authority of the) scripture the ascetics are endowed with either pure or auspicious manifestation of  consciousness: amongst them, those endowed with the pure one have no Karmic influx and the rest have.

246. The ascetic course of conduct, resulting from auspicious manifestation of consciousness, consists in devotion to Arahantas etc. and in showing affection towards those who are applied to the doctrine.

 247. Standing up (when the elderly monks arrive), following them (when they are going), showing respect (to them) and removal of fatigue: these, accompanied by salutation and adoration, are not forbidden for monks having auspicious resultant of consciousness.

 248. Preaching about right faith and knowledge, receiving and feeding the pupils, and giving instruction in the worship of great Jinas constitute the course of conduct of monks with auspicious resultant of consciousness.

 249. He, who renders assistance to the ascetic community consisting of four classes without causing harm to any living being, is the foremost monk (possessing subhopayoga).

 250. If an ascetic, in course of rendering assistance to his co-monks, causes pain to living beings, he is no more an ascetic but becomes a house-holder, because that forms the duty of a layman.

 251. One should confer benefits on all the Jainas whether practising the course of duty of a house-holder or of an ascetic through compassion and without expecting anything in return, even though this involves slight sin.

252. A monk (of subhopayoga) should, to the best of his ability, help a co-ascetic seeing him suffering from disease, hunger, thirst or exhaustion.

 253. Talk with common people, if it results into auspicious consciousness, for rendering assistance to diseased, revered, young or old ascetics, is not forbidden.

 254. This course of conduct is good for monks; but it is the best for householders, whereby alone they (gradually) attain the highest bliss.

 255. The auspicious attachment fruits otherwise according to the object with which it is associated, like the seeds, at the sowing time, sown in different kinds of fields.

 256. One, who is devoted to vows, rules, study, meditation and charity and who is keeping in mind the aims prescribed by a  teacher who has not attained omniscience, will not attain liberation, but attains a pleasurable condition of existence (to be followed by births again).

 257. Reverence, service and gifts offered to persons, who do not know the nature of reality and in whom pleasures and passions predominate, result into wretched births among men and gods.

258. Since objects of pleasures and passions are described as sin in the sacred texts, how can those, who are given to them, be able (to cross and) to help others to cross (the mundane existence)?

 259. That man, who has refrained from sin, who entertains an attitude of equality towards all religious people and who maintains a band of virtues, joins the excellent, path of liberation.

260. Those, that are free from inauspicious manifestation of consciousness and are endowed with pure or auspicious one, can (cross and) help other to cross (the mundane existence); one who is devoted to them attains excellence.

 261. Seeing a natural object (in the form of a great saint), one should perform such duties, the foremost of which is standing up, one is to be honoured according to his merits: that is the advice (of Jinas).

 262. Meritorious ascetics in this worlds, it is said, should be welcomed with a stand-up, should be greeted with words, should be served fed and revered, should be saluted with folded hands and be bowed down to.

 263. Sramanas, skilled in the interpretation of sacred texts and rich in moral discipline, austerities and right knowledge, should be welcomed with a stand-up, should be served and be bowed down to by other ascetics.

 264. It is opined that one does not become a Sramana, though endowed with moral discipline, austerities and scriptural study, if he has no faith in the realities, the foremost of which is the soul, as preached by Jinas.

 265. Seeing an ascetic abiding by the injunctions of the scripture, he, who ridicules him through malice and is unwilling to do these reverential duties (unto him), ruins his conduct.

 266. If a monk of inferior merits, thinking (proudly) that he is a Sramana, expects reverence from one who is more merited, he wanders in worldly existence till infinity.

 267. If monks possessing more merits with regard to their asceticism, remain practising (their duties) with (or in the company of) those of inferior merits, they are victims of false faith and lose their conduct.

 268. He, who has properly grasped the interpretation of the sacred text, who has pacified the passions and who excels in austerities, cannot be self-controlled, if he does not abandon company with common people.

*22. He, who is pained in mind at the sight of and receives kindly the thirsty, hungry and miserable, is a man of compassion. 

 269. If a monk after becoming a Nirgrantha ascetic, still dabbles in worldly professions (like palmistry etc.) , he is called a worldly man (or a commoner), even though he is endowed (externally) with self-control and austerities.

270. Therefore, a Sramana, if he desires for release from misery, should always live with an ascetic of equal merits or possessing more merits.

271. Those, who have wrongly grasped the nature of realities and are sure (in their mistaken way) that the reality, according to the creed, is such, wander long (till infinity) in mundane existence which is full with the fruits of misery.

 272. He, who has abstained from improper conduct, who is certain about the nature of reality exactly as it is, whose soul is peaceful and who maintains perfect asceticism here, will not live long without attaining the fruit (of liberation).

273. Those, that have grasped all things properly, have renounced (attachment for) external and internal paraphernalia and are not steeped in pleasures of senses, are called the pure or suddha.

274. He, who is pure, is said to be Sramana; to the pure one belong faith and knowledge; the pure one attains liberation; healone is a Siddha: my salutation to him.

275. He, who practising the course of duties of a house-holder and of a monk, comprehends this doctrine, realizes, within ashort time, the essence of the doctrine (namely, the Self).