|GUIDLINES OF JAINISM||
The Jain Philosophy
The system of thought.
The three pronouncements.
Shraman Bhagwan Mahavir expounded and established the Dharma (the Jain philosophy) and communicated it to his first disciple, Indrabhuti Gautam Swami and ten other Ganadhars (Chief disciples) in three statements which constitute the foundation of the Jain philosophy; and a comprehensive statement of its essentials. These three statements are known as Tripati.
1) Upanneyi Va - There is production of matter:
2) Vigameyi Va - Matter gets destroyed:
3) Dhuveyi Va - Matter is permanent:
Sat is Dravya. It is matter. Though it may appear in various forms, it is permanent in its original and essential form. It is permanent. It remains in its original form. It is called Padarth or substance. This matter assumes various transformations. It has its original form as well as its changed forms.
Changes are taking place every moment in matter and in every aspect of it. Production and destruction are endless processes. But on account of these changes, Matter does not experience any loss in its original form.
Matter as Dravya remains permanent and sound. But changes occur and changed forms are destroyed. For this reason, the Jain dharma does not consider any matter either as always permanent or as always transitory. When we notice the destruction of substance. it is not really loss or destruction but only a change or a transformation of matter. For instance, when charcoal is burnt to ash, the charcoal is not really destroyed. it combines with the oxygen present in the air and becomes carbondioxide.
According to the Jain Dharma the number of substances present now, were existing in the past and will be in existence. in the future. There will be no reduction or increase in this. All transformations assume those forms according to their properties and potentialities; and in course of time, they get destroyed and cease to exist in that form. Dravya in its original and essential form remains indestructible.
The organization of the universe.
The Jain philosophical thinking on creation and formation.
The Jain dharma believes that this universe Is without a beginning; and without an end. The universe did not begin at any time and it will not end at any time. The Jain Dharma totally rejects the theory that God created this universe; or that he made this world. If the theory of creation is accepted as true, countless problems crop up.
If God created this universe, who created that God ? Who created the creator who created God ? Such questions keep cropping up and there is no end to it. Which came first? The hen or the egg? The night or the day? There is no end to these questions; and there are no answers too.
Who is God?
Why did God create this world or this universe? Only he can be called God who is omniscient, omnipotent, and who is devoid of desires, and passions.
If God really has these attributes, then why did he create this world which is groaning in agony and anguish ? If really God is such why did he steep 87.5 percent of the people of this world in poverty, misery and want; and why did he bestow prosperity and happiness on the remaining 12.5 per cent? Why?
If God has created such a world impelled by his desire or curiosity, then the question arises whether he can be called God at all if he is a thrall to passions and desires. How can we say that God is "Karunanidhi,, (treasure of benevolence) if he causes sorrow to others for his pleasure? Desire is the greatest of all evils. With evil in him how can he be God ? How can divinity manifest itself in him?
"God gives happiness or sorrow to people, in proportion to their merits or demerits (good deeds or sins),,. If we believe this statement to be true, then the questions arises: Why did he give some people the will and ability to do good deeds? Why did he give them the virtuous mind that enables them to do good deeds? So that they may experience happiness and prosperity as a result of it or vice-versa, But why has he given a majority of people a wicked mind that compels them to do evil? Do they not, on account of it, suffer from poverty, hunger and want in their lives? They commit evil deeds; and he allows them to do them; and then he punishes them for them. What kind of justice is this? The judge himself allows the evil deeds to be committed; and hence the judge himself deserves punishment.
Instead of getting caught in the meshes of such questions, it would be better to consider the universe as being devoid of any beginning. We have to think that after all some truth is without a beginning; then why is it not possible to consider that the universe itself is without a beginning ? This belief at least frees us from the conflict of problems that defy any solution.
How can it be said that "In this universe all creatures are God's images and that they are his shadows?" This cannot be true because when God is free from all bondages all atmas - souls also should be free. If God is in bliss and if he is free from misery, then all creatures who are his images or sparks must be in bliss. There should be no need for any one to trudge upon the hard path of salvation. All should be like God. But this is not the case.
Every creature living in this universe possesses a separate and independent existence and individuality. Every one's soul is independent. Everyone has a separate existence. Every creature has to put forth its own efforts to get deliverance from the bondage of Karmas and to attain salvation because Dharma is essentially a personal affair. It is an attainment to be made by one's own self.
The bondage and deliverance of each individual belong to himself or herself. The experience of happiness or sorrow belongs to each individual and it is his own. Therefore, the Jain Dharma says:
This universe has not been created by God; but has been revealed by him. He does not create this universe.. he does not rule it; does not govern it; and does not direct it and "the creation is such". God surely reveals to us the real nature and form of the universe. Seeing with his divine eyes, he reveals the essential and real form of the universe. The Tirthankar Bhagwant has said: The world is without a beginning. It has no beginning. It has no end. This creation is boundless being devoid of a beginning and an end. But it is present in the flow and flux of time. The universe sometimes grows small. Creation and destruction; production and disposal are always going on. Behind this eternal process there does not exist anyone's planning or organization. The whole universe is a self-regulated one. But in this organization, Karma plays an important role. In this process the effect of Karma is emphatically evident.