Chapter XI


Social - Divisions

The Social Divisions in Jainism are concerned with society. It seems that in the Early Medieval Period, Jaina saints converted a large number of people to Jainism, and formed their social groups and named them in different ways. From their names such as Humbaāa and Dhaskaūa, it seems that they originated from tribal people. Some are territorial in nature. Some Kulas, titles and surnames were converted into castes. Some castes originated from the professions. The Jaina system  of social organization was in the beginning based on the distinction of function. Later on, birth was considered as a criterion of these castes because of the influence of Brahmanical religion and of Muslim rule. Most of the Jaina castes in North - India originated in Rajasthan. Later on, they gradually migrated to the different regions. These Jaina castes were divided into Įvetambara and Digambara castes on the basis of religious sects. Among the Įvetämbara castes, Osvälas, Poravälas and Įrļmälļs are famous, while in the Digambaras, Bagheravälas and Khaīāelavälas are well known. As people migrated and settled in different regions outside Rajasthan, it shows their adventurous spirit. Some castes of the same name as Ägravälas, Įrļmälļs, Poravälas and Khaīāelavälas are found both among the Jainas and the non-Jainas. In South India, castes among the Jainas were determined by the professions. These castes were gradually divided into several gotras. The marriages of the individuals of the caste were determined after considering the gotras.

Jaina Castes and Gotras of Rajasthan : Most of the castes and their gotras found among the Jainas in the North have their origin, in Rajasthan. The time and the manner of their origin is shrouded in considerable mystery. There are many legendary accounts of their origin which tell us that they are of great antiquity. But, as a matter of fact, no names of these castes and their gotras before the seventh century are traceable. From the historical point of view, these castes and their gotras seem to have come into existence between the eighth and the thirteenth century A.D., the time of golden age for Jainism in Rajasthan. There were born great influential saints like Hemachandra and Jinachandra who converted the Rajputs Brähmaīas and Vaiįyas to Jainism. Even the Jaina statesmen like Vimala and Vastupäla tried to spread Jainism by rendering meritorious services. The merchants also spent countless wealth for its propagation by constructing beautiful temples and placing images in them. In this way, Jainism was accepted by a large number of masses who formed different Castes.

(1) Osavälas : Osavälas are found in all the important cities of Rajasthan. They occupy a prominent position both in administrative and commercial spheres. Their origin is from the place named Osia in Marwar. This town was visited by Uppaladeva, the Scion of the ruling family of Įrļmäla who being pressed by his enemy sought refuge at the hands of a ruler of the Pratļhära dynasty which was then supreme in Marwar. At this time, the Jaina saint Ratnaprabhasüri came to this place and found the only son of Uppaladeva bitten by a snake. The king requested Ratnaprabha to cure him which he did. The king with his subjects embraced Jainism and Ratnaprabhasüri formed the Osaväla  Caste of these people. There are three views about the time of the incident.

1. According to the Näbhinandanoddhära-prabandha and the Upakeįagachchha-charitra, Ratnaprabhasüri, the seventh paūūadhara in the line of Pärįvanätha, established the Osavaćįa in Vļra Nirväīa Saćvat 70 (457 B.C.). 2. In the opinion of the Bhäūas, the caste of the Osavälas with their eighteen Gotras was established by the teachings of Ratnaprabhasüri at Upakeįanagara in Marwar in 222 V.E. (165 A.D.) 3. But both these views do not seem to be correct, because there is no mention and trace of this caste before the 8th century A.D. It seems to have come into existence afterwards. The king Uppaladeva and his subjects were converted to Jainism by Ratnaprabhasüri who formed their caste of Osavälas.

Gotras of the Osavälas : After the conversion, Osavälas continued to multiply and they formed eighteen Gotras according to the traditions. But the process of the multiplication continued further particularly because they ceased to be a fighting race; and there was no mass casualty due to any battle. It is believed that there are 1444 Gotras of the Osavälas. But these are not the main Gotras. They just represent simply the branches and sub-branches. Yati Įrļpäla refers to the manuscript which mentions 609 Gotras.1 The poet Rüpachanda of the eighteenth century A.D. in his Osvälaräsa mentions about 440 Gotras.2 Some are territorial, some are individualistic, and others are occupational.

(a) Territorial Gotras : Some Gotras were named after the places of their origin. Jinadattasüri gave väsakshepa to the two princes namely Įrļdhara and Räjadhara of Rävala Sägara at Bhaīasäla in Jaisalmer. The Princes and after them their descendants and still further those who were closely or remotely related to them, all came to be called Bhaīasälļs. And thus was established the Bhaīaįälļ Gotra.3 In 1542 A.D., Säha Vļdaka of this Gotra celebrated the consecration of Chandraprabha through Jinabhadra Süri at Jaisalmer.4 So the Gotra must have strated not later than 1500 A.D. The Kächholi Gotra was formed after the village named Kächchhola in Sirohi State probably at the beginning of the 13th century A.D. In 1286 A.D., Ajayasićha of this Gotra installed the image of Pärįvanätha at Kachchholļ for acquiring merit for his parents.5 Koranūa Gotra originated from the place named Koranūa in Marwar. In 1450 A.D. Säha Vļsala of this Gotra for acquiring merit for himself celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Sumatinätha through Kakkasüri of this Gachchha.6 Some Osavälas of Pügala settled at another place, and they began to be called by the name Pügala. Meāataväla Gotra came into existence after the city of Mertä in the former Jodhpur State. The inscriptions of the 16th century of this Gotra are available at Mertä and Udaipur.7 The Osavälas who came from Kanauj, were grouped under Kanaujiä Gotra. In 1502 A.D., Säkheāha of this Gotra for the merit of his father consecrated the Įļtalanätha bimba through Devagupta Süri.8 Käõkrļa Gotra originated from Bhļmasļ who lived in the village Känkarävata.9 He was the Sämanta of Mahäräīä of Udaipur and was converted to Jainism by Jinavallabhasüri of the Kharatara Gachchha. There is a mention of this Gotra in the inscription of 1442 A.D. found at Alwar.10 It is clear that these Gotras started mostly between the 13th and the 15th centuries A.D.

(b) Occupational Gotras : Some Gotras originated from the occupations of certain Jainas. Räūhāa Räva Chüīāä gave his treasury to Ūhäkarasļ. It is therefore the descendants of Ūhäkarasļ that began to be called Koūhärļ. From the inscription of 1456 A.D., it is clear that Megha of this Gotra celebrated Väsapüjya bimba through Vinayaprabhasüri of Nägendra Gachchha.11 Those people, who did the work of cashiers, were called Khajäńchļ. The Bhaīāärļs claim  Āaāräo as their great ancestor.12 In 992 A.D., he adopted Jainism from Yaįobhadrasüri of the Saīāeraka Gachchha. Officially, Āaāräo was designed as Bhaīāärļ or the person in charge of the store-house; and consequently, his descendants became known as Bhaīāäris. The earliest inscription of this clan at Näāläi of 1132 A.D. refers to Bhaīāäri Nägaįiva as a witness to a certain grant.13 Another inscription of 1184 A.D. refers to one Bhaīāäri Yaįovļra as the lord of Palla (a village six miles to the west of Jodhpur).14 A Jalor inscription of 1185 A.D. records the rebuilding of the Jaina temple by Bhaīāäri Yaįovira, son of Päsu, in accordance with the orders of Mahäräjä Sämanta Sićha.15 The descendants of the person, who deals in ghee, were called Ghļyä. In 1569 A.D., Narabaāa of this Gotra set up the image of Sambhavanätha through Hļravijaya of Tapä Gachchha.16 It is heard that the ancestor of the people of Vaidys Gotra cured the disease of an eye of the queen of Mahäräīä of Udaipur. Therefore, he was given the title of Vaidya, and his descendants became famous by Veda Gotra.17 In 1455 A.D., Bhäāäka of this Gotra installed the image of Vimalanätha through Kukaāächärya of Upakeįa Gachchha.18 The Mahäjani Gotra was probably formed from the profession of Mahäjana. The inscription of 1457 A.D. records that Nälhä of this Gotra consecrated an image of Įäntinätha through Kakkasürļ.19 There are also Chanāäliyä and Bambi Gotras found among the Osavälas. Their business was with these sorts of people; and, therefore, they began to call themselves by these names. In 1745 A.D., Ratnapäla of Chanāäliyä Gotra set up  the image of Suvidhinätha for the merit of his father through Puīyanidhänasüri of Maladhäri Gachchha.10

(c) Gotras after Personal Names : The names of the Gotras were also given after certain famous persons. The Ädityanäga Gotra originated from the well known person Ädityanäga who was very famous for liberal charities and solicitude for social welfare.21 Numerous inscriptions of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries on the pedestals of the images of this Gotra are also found in various places such as Jodhpur, Nagaur, Bälotarä etc.22 After addressing Paćvära Räjapüta Läla  Sićha in 1110 A.D., Jinavallabha Süri established the Läläīļ Gotra.23 Läla Sićha had seven sons. The eldest son was very strong (Baīūha) and from him originated Baīūhiyä Gotra. In 1444 A.D., Säha Jayavaāa of Lälänļ Gotra set up the image of Dharmanätha through Jayakeįari Süri of Ańchala Gachchha.24 In 1479 A.D., Säha Hämä of Bäīūhiya Gotra made the celebration of Jinavarendra Paūūikä through Jinachandra Süri.25. It is said that the descendants of Gadäsäha were called Gadahiyä.26 In 1411 A.D., Säha Änä of this Gotra for the merit of his wife Bhļmanļ celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Įäntinätha through. Devaguptasüri of Upakeįa Gachchha.27 Lüīiyä Gotra was named after Lüīa Sićha who accepted Jainism from Jinadatta Süri. In 1456 A.D., the image of Pärįvanätha was consecrated by Geįaka of this Gotra through Jinabhadrasüri of Kharatara Gachchha.28 In 1148 A.D., Hemachandrasüri of Pürīatala  Gachchha by addressing Paćvära Rajapüta Jagadeva converted him to Jainism.29 Süra and Säõvala were the two sons of Jagadeva. The descendants of Süra were called Suräīä and of Säõvalä were known  as Säõkhalä.30 In 1444 A.D., Sonapäla of Suräīä Gotra installed the image of Sumatinätha through Vijaya Chanda Süri of Dharmaghosha Gachchha.31 The consecration ceremony of the image of Sumatinätha  was performed by Läkhäka of Säõkhalä Gotra through Vijaya Chanda Süri of Dharmaghosha Gachchha in 1438 A.D. 32 Dügaā and Sügaāa, the two brothers accepted Jainism from Jinachandrasüri.33 The descendants of Dügaāa were called Dügaāa and of Sügaāa by the name Sügaāa. In 1460 A.D., Nägaräja of this Gotra celebrated the consecration of the image of Įreyäćsanätha through Somasundara of Rudrapalli Gachchha.34 The Botharä Gotra was named after Bohitha, the son of the king named Sägara of Delaväāä.35 In 1477 A.D., the installation ceremony of the image of Įreyänįanätha was performed by Thähä of Botharä Gotra through Jina Chanda Süri of Kharatara Gachchha.36 From the person Düdherä, this Gotra became famous as Dudheriyä Gotra.37 On the preaching of Jinaküįala Süri,  Düõgara Sićha, the Chauhäna Räjpüt accepted Jainism. From this name, his descendants were called Āägä.38

(d) Kulas Converted into Gotras : Some Kulas also in course of time were converted into Gotras. The ancient Kaįyapa Kula in course of time was converted into Kaįyapa Gotra. From the inscription of 1458 A.D., it is clear that Chuāä of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Neminätha through Ļįvarasüri of Saīāeraka Gachchha.39 In the 13th century A.D., Įravaīa, the son of Karīa Sićha, accepted Jainism from Yaįobhadra Süri.40 His descendants also followed Jainism and became known by Sisodiyä Gotra.

(e) Gotras Formed After Actions : Some Gotras have been also formed after certain actions. The Baraāiyä Gotra is said to have originated in about the 11th century A.D. from Näga Vyantara who gave Varadiyä (gave promise) to Näräyaīa.41 Baraāiyä is the Apabhraćįa of Varadiyä. In 1527 A.D., the image of Įäntinätha was consecrated by Säha Ūoāara of this Gotra.42 Päsu was an expert in examining jewels. His descendants were, therefore, known by Pärakha or Parļkshä.43 In 1461 A.D. Surapati of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Suvidhinätha through Jina Chandra of Kharatara Gachcha.44 In 1120 A.D., Jinadatta Süri after addressing Jobana and Sachchu established Bähuphaīä Gotra.45 His descendants did not move from the battlefield and therefore they were called Nähaūä. It may also be suggested that Bähuphaīä Gotra was named after the well-known person named Bappanäga.46 It is known  from the inscriptions of 1329 A.D. that Mokhaūa of this Gotra for the merit of his parents set up the image of Sumatinätha through Kakka Süri41. In 1439 A.D., Mäjaīa of Nähaūä Gotra constructed devakulikä of Vimalanätha temple at Karahaāa through Mańjanasägara Süri.48 The Sultan of Mändalgarh being impressed by the virtues of Jhäńjhana Sićha, allowed him to keep the Kaūära (knife) in the royal court. His descendants, therefore, became famous by Kaūäriyä Gotra.49 By the influence of the discourses of Bhuvana Sundara, Saõghavļ Tukade, Päsade, Punasļ and Mülä of Kaūäriyä Gotra constructed a devakulikä in Jiräpallļ temple in 1426 A.D.50 The people, who went on pilgrimage, were given the title of Saõghavļ. A person named Käkü was given the title of Nagara Seūha. His descendants therefore began to be called Seūhiyä.51 In 1095 A.D., Jinavallabhasüri came to Mandor which was ruled by the king named Nänuāe Paāihära. His son was Kukaāadeva who was suffering from leprosy. The king requested him to cure him. He asked the king to bring ghee of some cow and got it rubbed over the body of the prince. After the treatment of three days, he became all right. The king with his family accepted Jainism and Sürijļ established his Kukaiāächopaāä Gotra.52 The minister of the Paāihära king named Gaīadhara also accepted Jainism and Süriji established Gaīadhara Chopaāä Gotra. There is the mention of the Kukaāä Chopaāä Gotra in the inscription of 1479 A.D.53 The inscription of 1436 A.D. records that Päsaāa of Gaīadhara Chopaāä Gotra set up an image of Supärįvanätha through Jinabhadrasüri.54 Kharata Sićha Räūhoāa at the preaching of Jinadattasüri accepted Jainism. His elder son, Ambadeva faced the thieves (chora se bhiāiyä) and caught them. The name in course of time became Choraāiyä.55

It is known from the inscriptions of the images that some Gotras were specially connected with some Gachchhas. The people of these Gotras celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images through the Acaryas of their respective Gachchhas. The people of Ädityanäga Gotra  performed the consecration ceremony of the various images but all through the Ächäryas of Upakeįa Gacchha. Similarly, the persons belonging to Gadahiyä Gotra, Bäphaīä Gotra and Räīakä Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony through the Ächäryas of Upakeįa Gachchha. The people of Gaīadhara Chopaāä Gotra, Āägä Gotra, Dosļ Gotra and Lüīiyä Gotra generally performed the installation ceremony of the images through the Acaryas of Kharatara Gachchha. The people of Ghäõghä Gotra and Chaīāäliyä Gotra set up the images mostly through the Ächäryas of Maladhäri Gachchha. Chhäjahaāa Gotra is specially related to Palliväla Gachchha because its persons installed the images generally through the Acaryas of this Gachchha. The persons of Sisodiyä  Gotra are seen installing the images through the Acaryas of Shaīāeraka Gachchha. The persons belonging to Dügaāa Gotra and Mļthaāiya Gotra are seen setting up the images respectively through the Ächäryas of Bōihad Gachchha and Ańchala Gachchha. Sometimes, the persons of the Gotra installed the images through the Acaryas of two Gachchhas. This is specially seen in the case of Säõkhavälechä Gotra. They installed the images through the Acarya of Koraīūaka Gachchha and Kharatara Gachchha. It is also noticed though rarely that the persons of one particular Gotra set up images through the Acaryas of more than one Gachchha.

Įrļmälļs : Įrļmälļs among Jainas originated from Įrļmäla now known as Bhimal in Marwar. In course of time, they multiplied and  spread specially in Jodhpur, Udaipur and Sirohi. They occupied the influential position in the society. Their origin may be traced back to the 8th century A.D. There is a stanza in the praįasti56 of Kälakächärya Kathä of 1308 A.D.  which tells that Įrävaka Dļāä of Įrļmäla caste after listening to the religious discourses from Įänti Süri constructed the Chaitya of Ädinätha in 647 A.D. at Navahara. The oldest genealogy of the Įrļmäla Caste says that a merchant Toāä of Bhäradväja Gotra and of Įrļmala Caste was addressed by a Jaina Saint in 738 A.D.57 From both these instances, it is clear that Jainism was popular and prevalent in Įrļmäla in the eighth century A.D. The king named Vijayanta of Įrļmäla accepted Jainism from Udaiprabha Süri. Along with him, sixty-two seūhas, followers of Brähmanism, also accepted Jainism.58 All were called Įrļmälļs. From the Pańchapaūaräsa written by the poet Udayaratna concerning the history of the Acaryas of Dvivandanika, the branch of Upakeįa Gachachha, it is known that in 700 Įaka era, Ratnaprabha Süri came to this town where he established the Srļmäla caste.59 From all these instances, it is clear that Įrļmälļs among the Jainas came into existence in the seventh or eighth century A.D.

In course of time, Įrļmälļs were divided into two classes namely Laghu Įäkhä and Bōihad Įäkhä. The inscription of 1488 A.D. indicates that Sahasakaraīa of Laghu Įäkhä of the Srļmäla Caste for the merit of his mother celebrated the consecration of the image of Ädinätha through Siddhänta Sägara of Ańchala Gachchha.60 There is als an inscription of 1944 A.D. of Bōiddha Įäkhä of Įrļmäla caste.61 Besides, there are various Gotras found among the Įrļmälļs as known to us from the inscriptions. These are based on occupations, place names and other grounds.

Gotras of Įrļmälis : The Gotras of Įrļmälļs originated in various ways. Ambikä Gotra seems to have originated from the deity Ambikä. In 1477 A.D., Įreshūhi Chändrasäva of this Gotra for the merit of ancestors performed the installation ceremony of the image of Įäntinätha through Lakshmļsägara Įüri.62 Ailahara Gotra is mentioned in the inscription of 1442 A.D.63 There are also the inscriptions of Govaliyä Gotra64 and Ghevariyä Gotra.65 The inscription of 1452 A.D. records that Jävaāa of Gändhika Gotra set up the image of Dharmanätha.66 In 1476 A.D., the consecration of the image of Įäntinätha was celebrated by Päsaāa of Gautama Gotra.67 Here, this Gotra seems to have originated from the Kula founded by some saint  named Gautama. Chaīāälechä68 Gotra and Āauāä Gotra are also found in the inscriptions.69 Dosļ Gotra,70 Naluriyä Gotra, Junļväla Gotra, Jhungatiyä Gotra, Nävara Gotra,71 Bhäīāiyä72 Gotra, Mauūhiyä73 Gotra, Mänthalapurä Gotra,74 Vahagatä Gotra,75 Įreshūhļ Gotra,76 Sļõghaāa Gotra,77 Phophaliya Gotra,78 Bhäīāavata Gotra,79 Müsala Gotra80 and Siddha Gotra81 are found in the inscriptions of the 15th century A.D. Dhļnä Gotra,82 Päūäīļ Gotra83 and Muhavaīä Gotra84 are seen in the inscriptions belonging to the 16th century A.D.

Poravälas : It is saud that Poravälas originated simultaneously with Įrļmälļs from Įrļmäla in the eighth century A.D. The people of the eastern gate of Įrļmäla, who accepted Jainism from the Jaina saints in the eighth century A.D., were called Poravälas.85 The origin of the Poravälas from Įrļmäla does not seem to be correct. In old inscriptions and manuscripts, Prägväūa has been used for the Poraväla.86 Prägväūa was another name of Mewar (Medapäūa). It seems that the people of Prägväūa country in course of time began to be called Prägväūas or Poravälas. The Poravälas tell their origin from the village Pura in Mewar. Like Įrļmälļs, Porvälas were also divided into Laghu Įäkhä and Bōihad Įäkhä. We have the inscription of Laghu Įäkhä of Poraväla caste of 1653 A.D.87 The image of Sumatinätha was set up in 1534 A.D. by Mantri Vļsaka of Bōiddha Įäkhä of Prägväūa Caste.88

The Gotras89 of the Poraväla Caste as known from the inscriptions and manuscripts are as follows90 — Jhülara, Muīūhaliyä, Lļmbä, Maīāaliyä, Kunagirä, Paūela, Narvaūa, Loläniya, Posaä, Kothärļ, Bhaīāärļ, Ambäi, Koāakļ and Näga. In 1546 A.D., the brothers Tejapäla, Räjapäla, Ratanasļ and Rämadäsa of Koūźäri Gotra of Prägväūa Caste constructed the temple of Mahävļra, at the village named Pināaväāä in Sirohi State.91 Įänti of Bhaīāäri Gotra installed the image of Munisuvratanätha in 1447 A.D.92 In 1571 A.D.,  Vyaavahäri Khļmä of Ambä Gotra set up the image of Dharmanätha.93 In 1586 A.D., Müla of Koāakļ Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the image of Ädinätha through Vijayasena Süri of Tapä Gachchha.94

Pallļväla Caste : Pallļvälas both among the Digambaras and Įvetämbaras, seem to have been named after Pälļ in Marwar the name of which in olden times was Pallikä. It is said that the people of this place were converted to Jainism in about the eigth century A.D. by Ratnaprabhasüri who converted the people of Osiä and Įrļmäla. Pallļvälas are known to have celebrated the consecration ceremony of images from time to time. In 1253 A.D., Dedä of this caste installed an image of Mallinätha through Yaįobhadra of Chandra Gachchha.95 People of this caste also led Saćghas to holy places from time to time from Pälļ.96

Khaīāelaväla Caste : There is no doubt that the Caste of Khaīāelavälas originated from the place named Khaīāelä. But there is some difficulty in assigning the time to this incident. According to the legendary account, Jinasenächärya in the line of  the saint Aparäjita, converted the Chauhän king of Khaīāelä with his subjects to Jainism in V.S.I.97 Eighty-two Rajbuts and two goldsmiths were ruling over eighty-four villages of the kingdom of Khaīāelä. The eightyfour Gotras were formed either after the name of the villages or the heads of villages. The Gotras of the two goldsmiths became Ämnäya Baja and Mohanäya Baja. The time assigned to this incident is not correct.  There are no solid grounds for the existence of this caste before the eighth century A.D. The earliest mention of this caste is found in the inscription of 1197 A.D.98

The origin of the eightyfour Gotras, from the eightyfour villages at one particular time, does not seem to be correct. The number eightyfour seems to be only conventional. There are eightyfour castes, eightyfour postures (äsanas) etc. Originally, these Gotras may be less in number, but gradually they increased. Some Gotras not even in existence at the beginning were added in order to make them eightyfour in number. These Gotras seem to be based on the place names, occupations and surnames etc.

Regional Gotras : The Gotras also seem to be regional in nature. Ajmerä Gotra was probably named after Ajmer. Sunakhatļ, the wife of Säha Surajana of Ajmer of this Gotra, got the Pradyumnacharitra written and gave to the nun Vinayaįrļ in 1538 A.D. There is also the mention of this Gotra in the inscription of 1594 A.D. Päūodļ Gotra seems to have originated from the village Päūodä in Įekhävat. It is found in the Praįasti of 1764 A.D.100 Dosļ Gotra seems to have originated from the place named Dausä in Jaipur State. Bohitha of this Gotra of Ajmer set up the image of Chaubļsļ in 1601 A.D. The Gotra Käsalļväla seems to have come into existence from the village Käsalļ near Sļkara in Jaipur State. It is mentioned in the Praįasti of the copy of the manuscripts written in 1524 A.D.101 Päūanļ Gotra started from the village named Päūana, near Khaīāelä. Pätamäde, the wife of Paharäja of this Gotra of Nagaur, presented a copy of the Ädipuräīa to Dharmachanda in 1520 A.D.102 There is also a mention of this Gotra in the inscription of 1594 A.D.103 Toõgyä Gotra may have originated from Tonk. It is mentioned in the praįati of 1522 A.D.3 Kälä Gotra seems to have been named from Kälädevä near Chomu in Jaipur State. Roho of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of an image of 1516 A.D.105 It is also found in the praįasti of 1607 A.D.106

Occupational Gotras : The Gotras were also formed after the occupations. Veda Gotras started from the person who followed the profession of medicines. His descendants in course of time began to be called by this name. In 1584 A.D., Mokä with his wife and sons of this Gotra installed the Samyagdarįana Yantra.107 From the legendary account, it is clear that the ancestor of Baja Gotra was a goldsmith at the time of his conversion to Jainism. In 1646 A.D., Häthļnätha of this Gotra performed the prati’ūhä of Daįalakshīa Yantra.108 The name of this Gotra is also found in the praįasti of 1688 A.D. The Sonļ Gotra also indicates the profession of the people. The earliest mention of it is known from the inscription of 1584 A.D. in which Säha Telä of this Gotra installed Karakuīāapärįvanätha Yantra.109 It is also mentioned in the praįasti of 1688 A.D.110 Boharä Gotra seems to have originated from the persons who lend money. Ratanä of this Gotra with his sons celebrated the consecration ceremony of the yantra in 1484 A.D.111

Titles and Surnames : Titles and surnames also seem to have developed into the Gotras. Įaha Gotra seems to have originated from the term Säha used for respect and veneration for the person. Sähatu of this Gotra with his wife and sons installed the Arham Yantra in 1539 A.D.112 The name of this Gotra is also found in the praįasti of 1518 A.D.113 The title of Chaudharļ was given by the Government to those who did the work of revenue collection. In course of time, it was developed into the Gotra. Säha Mahäräjä of this Gotra got the copy of the Pärįvanäthacharitra written and gave it to Dharmachandra in 1554 A.D.114 Chhäbaāä Gotra seems to have come into existence from Säha plus Baāä (Säha plus great). First, it was Säbaāä but in course of time, it became Chhäbaāä. Säha Notä of Säbaāä Gotra got the copy of the Nägakumära-charitra written and presented it to Lalitakļrti.115 There is also a mention  of this Gotra in the inscription of 1591 A.D.116 Bhainsä Gotra was probably formed from the terms Bhaļ plus Säha. It is found in the praįasti of 1694 A.D.117 When the people of this Gotra became large in number, they were known as Baāajätyä (Big caste). At present, Bhainsä Gotra and Baāajätyä Gotra are considered to be identical Gotra. Seūhļ Gotra probably originated from Įreshūhi which meant rich merchant. This term is frequently found in ancient Buddhist and Jaina literature. This Gotra is mentioned in the praįasti of 1575 A.D.118

Besides, there are other Gotras which are known from the inscriptions and praįastis. The earliest mention of Godhä Gotra is found in the inscription of 1413 A.D. It records that Vļlhaīa of this Gotra celebrated the consecration ceremony of the images.119 The other Gotras are Ūholyä Gotra120, Pahäāyä Gotra,121 Bilälä Gotra,122 Gaīgaväla Gotra,123 Godikä Gotra,124 Päīdyä Gotra,125 Räõvakä Gotra,126 and Sogänļ Gotra.127 There is also a mention of Kurakurä128 Gotra in the inscription of 1584 A.D. which records that Kälu with his sons and grandsons of this Gotra performed the installation ceremony of Ōinkära Yantra. This Gotra is not found in the list of eightyfour Gotras of Khaīāelaväla caste. It is known both from the praįastis and inscriptions that the people of this caste were generally associated with the Ächäryas of Müla Saćgha and rarely with the Ächäryas of the other Saćghas. It indicates that the centre of the activities of Müla Saćgha remained in Rajasthan.

Bagheraväla Caste : Bagheraväla caste originated in about eighth century A.D. from Bagherä, a place of great antiquity. Old Jaina temples and images were discovered and its name is also found in the Bijaulia Rock Inscription dated 1170 A.D.129 This place was aslo the seat of the Bhaūūärakas in the twelfth century A.D.130 There is a belief that Rämasena and Nemasena, the Digambara Jaina saints, converted the king of this town with his subjects to Jainism.131 If not all, majority of the citizens of the town must have embraced Jainism from their hands. Pt. Äįädhara, who went to Dhäränagarļ from Mändalagaāha  for  fear of the invasion of Muhammad Ghori in the 12th century, was of Bagheraväla caste.132 Püna Sićha, who repaired the famous Kļrtistambha at Chitor in the 15th century A.D. during the reign of Kumbhakaraīa, was of this caste.133 The Gotras of this caste as known both from the inscriptions and praįastis are as follows – (1) Räyabhaīāäri134, (2) Įänkhaväla,135 (3) Įänäpati136 (4) Ūholä,137 (5) Koūvä,138 (6) Prabhä139 and (7) Siraväāyä.140

Agraväla Caste : The Agravälas are found in large numbers in Rajasthan. They occupy a respectable position in the society. They are highly educated and much advanced. They are found both among the Jainas and the Hindus. They are also an important middle class of business men. They enthusiastically supported Jainism in the past. They performed the installation ceremony of numerous images and got copies of the manuscripts written. According to the traditions, Agraväla caste originated from the place named Agrohä in the Punjab and was founded by Agrasena. Once he performed a sacrifice but stopped it when he saw the animals in a miserable condition. Probably, he was influenced by the doctrine of ahićsä. It is not clear whether he accepted Jainism or not; but from the paūūävalis,141 it is known that  Lohityächärya converted the Agravälas with their king Diväkara to Jainism. Later on, Agravälas began to follow Jainism. Accoring to Nägendranätha Vasu, this Agrasena is the same Ugrasena mentioned in the Allahabada inscription of Samudra Gupta.142 Lohityächärya was the master of Devarddhi Gaīi who arranged the Vächanä in 453 A.D. at Valabhi. The time of Lohityächärya may be thirty years before Devarddhi. He thus converted the Agravälas along with their king to Jainism in 423 A.D. But this view does not seem to be tenable. First of all, this Ugrasena was the ruler of Northern India while Ugrasena Devaräshūraka mentioned in the Allahabad inscription was ruling in the south. Lastly, we have no definite evidence for the existence of this caste before the 8th century A.D. Its Gotras as known both from the inscriptions and the praįastis are as follows — Goyala,143 Garga144 Siõghala145 and Baõsala146 etc. The Agravälas seem to have been mostly associated with the Käshūhä Saćgha and rarely with Müla Saćgha.

Chiūūoāä and Nägadä Castes : Chittoāä and Nägadä castes among the Digambaras originated from the old places Chitor and Nägadä respectively in Mewar. These castes seem to have come into existence in medieval times. People of these castes were religious minded and got several copies of manuscripts written in medieval times in order to present them to Jaina monks. They constructed temples and placed images in them with great ceremony. They were generally concerned with the Bhaūūärakas of the Müla Saćgha of Vägaāa and Käshūhä Saćgha. Bhaūūäraka Jńänabhüshaīa, who lived in the fifteenth century A.D., wrote the Nägadrä-räsa describing the history of the Nägada caste among the Jainas.147

Humbaāa Caste : The place of the origin of Humbada caste is not traceable. Most probably, like other castes, it must have originated from some particular place. In Rajasthan, the people of this caste are found in Dungarapur, Banswara and Pratapagarh, the portion of ancient Vägaāa province. They are found both among the Digambaras  and the Įvetämbaras. In the Digambaras, they remained in close touch mostly witht the Bhaūūärakas of the Käshūhä Saćgha and rarely with the Ächäryas of Müla Saćgh of Vägada. This caste also like other castes seems to have come into existence after the 8th century A.D. The persons of this caste also performed the installation ceremony of numerous images and temples. The famous Jaina temple at Jhälräpätan is said to have been constructed by Säha Pipä of this caste.148

Hümbaāa caste in course of time was divided into Įäkhäs and Gotras. The three Įäkhäs of this caste known to us are namely Laghu Įäkhä, Bōihat Įäkhä and Varshävata Įäkhä. Varshävata Įäkhä most probably originated from Varshäįäha who was the minister of Mahä Rävala Harisićha.149 On the orders of Mahärävala, he invited one thousand families of this caste to Känthala from Sägaväāä. He also started the work of the construction of the Digambara Jaina temple at Devalia but its installation ceremony was performed in 1717 A.D. after his death by his sons Vardhamäna and Dayäla. There are eighteen Gotras of this caste :150 (1) Kheraju, (2) Kamaleįvara, (3) Käkadeįvara, (4) Uttareįvara, (5) Mantreįvara, (6) Bhimeįvara, (7) Bhadreįvara, (8) Gaõgeįvara. (9) Viįveįvara, (10) Sänkheįvara, (11) Ambeįvara, (12) Chäńchaneįvara, (13) Someįvara, (14) Rajiyäno, (15) Laliteįvara, (16) Käsaveįvara, (17) Budheįvara, (18) Sangheįvara.

Dharkaūa Vaćįa : The people of Dharkaūa caste are found both among the Digambaras and the Įvetämbaras. The author of Dhammaparikkhä named Harisheīa of this caste lived in the 10th century A.D.151 There is a mention of this caste in the inscription of 1230 A.D. at Delaväāä.152 In the two inscriptions of Äbü also, these people have been described.153 In the beginning, this caste seems to have originated in Rajasthan but now its people are found in the south. From the expression, Siriujapuriya Ūhakkaāakula of Harisheīa, Pt. Nathu Rama Premi holds that it originated probably from Siroja in Tonk State.154 Mr. Agar Chanda Nähaūä observes that it originated from Dhakaāagaāha from which also originated the Dhakaāa branch of the Maheįvari Caste.155 On the evidence of the two praįastis,156 he tries to locate this place near Įrļmäla.

1. Mantrļdalļya (Matiyaīa) : Maīidhärļ Įrļ Jinachandrasüri, who was born in V.S. 1197 at Vikaramapura near Jaisalmer, became the Head of the Kharataragachchha in V.S. 1211. He was a great scholar and an influential teacher. He established the Mantridalļya (Mahatiyaīa) caste.157 This caste became popular from the 14th to the 17th century A.D., but afterwards disappeared gradually. People  of this caste were not only wealthy but some of them were high officials. They led pilgrimage to holy places. They were so much adventurous that they even migrated to Uttara Pradesh and Bihar, and settled over there. Gradually, this caste was divided into many gotras.

People of this caste performed installation ceremony of images from time to time. The Mantrļdalļya caste is engraved in the three image inscriptions.158 Käīä, Chopaāä, Jäūaāa Muīdatoāa and Moūa were the populer gotras of this caste. Other gotras known are Kädraāä,  Ghevaria, Dänhaāä, Dullaha, Nänhaāä, Bhädiya, Mahatä, Rohadiyä, Väyadä, Värttidļpä, Sayįtä and Mota.159

Most of the Jaina castes both among the Įvetämbaras and Digambaras, originated in Rajasthan during the medieval period. Gradually, they migrated to the neighbouring regions and settled there. Even in the neighbouring regions of Rajasthan, a few new castes were founded by Jaina saints. It seems that some Jaina saints converted the tribal people of these regions to Jainism and established their castes. The Muslim rule in Northern India during this period is directly or indirectly responsible for founding these castes. Jaina castes of South India of this period are generally professional in nature. These castes were gradually divided into several gotras.

Gujarat : The name Įrļmodha caste is derived from the ancient town Modhera, South of Anahilaväā in Gujarat. The famous Hemachandra Süri was also born in this caste. The inscriptions of the people of this caste can be traced from the twelfth century A.D.

Bhaūūäraka Rämasena of Nandilaūa gachchha founded the Narasićhapura caste after the name of the city Narasimhapura. He also got constructed the Jaina temple of Įäntinätha in this city. Bhļma of Narasićha caste performed the installation ceremony of images through Bhaūūäraka Somakļriti of the Käshūhä — Samgha in V.S. 1547.160 Nemisena, disciple of Bhaūūäraka Rämasena, was the devotee of Padmävatļ, and founded the Bhaūūapüra caste. Both Narasićhapura and Bhaūūapurä were the Digambara castes. Bhaūūäraka Devendrakļrti, disciple of Padmanandi, established the seat of the Mülasaćgha at Surat in the early half of the 14th century, and he established the Ratnäkara caste after converting seven hundred families to Jainism.

From the inscriptions161 of the 15th and 16th centuries found at Palitänä, Įatruńjaya and other sites, it is known that Osavälas, Įrļmälļs, Prägväūas, Dharkaūas and Humbaāas performed installation ceremony of images. It seems that some people of these castes migrated from Rajasthan and settled in Gujarat. Įrļvaćįa caste is mentioned in the Jaina inscriptions162 of V.S. 1551 and V.S. 1526.

Madhya Pradesh : Some of the Jaina castes are found mentioned in the inscriptions of the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. Chillaīa, who installed two Jaina images during the reign of Naravasman in V.S. 1157 at Bhojapura, belonged to the Vemaka family.163  The inscription of V.S. 1206 on Jaina statues at Gudar, contains the name of the Vabakańchuka race.164 Besides, there are some other castes of the Vaiįyas, known from inscriptions and some of them originally came from outside. The Khaīāelaväla caste has been mentioned in the inscriptions of V.S. 1191165, V.S. 1216166, V.S. 1305.167 The Poraväla Įrävakas168 are known to have performed the installation ceremony of Vardhanäpura, now known as Badnawar in V.S. 1308. The Bagheraväla Įrävakas169 were also associated with this installation ceremony of images. These Khaīāelaväla, Bagheraväla and Poraväla castes originated in Rajasthan in about the eighth century A.D. from Khaīāelä, Bagherä and Prägväta respectively, but in course of time, some members of these castes migrated even to Malwa. The Varkaūa caste has been mentioned in the inscriptions of V.S. 1231.170

Nļmä caste among the Įvetämbaras originated from the Nimäā region of Malwa. It has been mentioned in three Jaina inscriptions dated V.S 1506, V.S. 1532 and V.S. 1531 respectively.171 Numerous Jaina image inscriptions of the 15th and  16th centuries mention  Prägväūa, Osaväla and Įrimälļ.172 It seems that these people of these castes migrated to Malwa from Rajasthan. Gurjara caste has been mentioned in inscription dated V.S. 1512, Sohitaväla in V.S. 1573, Mantrļdalļya in V.S. 1519, Įrļvaćįa in V.S. 1515, Sonļin V.S. 1573 and Modha in V.S. 1656.173

Among the Digambara castes, people of Khaīāelaväla, Bagheraväla and Humbaāa castes were large in number as known from the Jaina image inscriptions of the 15th and 16th centuries.174 They also migrated from Rajasthan and settled in Malwa. From the Rämapurä inscriptions6 dated V.S. 1664 (1667 A.D.), it is known that Podärtha, Finance Minister of the Chandrävata ruler Durgabhänu, was of the Bagheraväla caste. Poraväla caste has been mentioned in the inscriptions. Nägara caste has been mentioned in the inscription dated V.S. 1220, Jaisaväla in V.S. 1319, Narasićhapura in V.S. 1529, Nägada or Nägadraha in V.S. 1489 and Chitraküūa in V.S. 1252.176

New castes and sub-castes among the Digambaras came into existence in the Jejjäka bhukti region (Bundelakahand) of Madhya Pradesh. The Gōihapatis mentioned in the inscriptions belonged to the Vaiįhya caste. Some of the Gōihapatis followed Brahmanical religions while others were Jainas. From the Khajuraho inscriptions177 dated 1000-1001 A.D. it is known that the ancestors of Gōihapati Kokalla originally lived in Padmävatļ (Pawaya, near Gwalior), but he came and settled in Khajuraho. He built the wonderful town and also the Vaidyanätha temple. Pähila, who constructed the Jaina temple of Pärįvanätha and made a number of gifts and endowments, belonged to Gōihapati family.178 The successors of Pähila are known to have installed Jaina images. Pähila and some of his successors held the ministerial posts. Devapäla of this caste built the Jaina temple at Bäīapur while his grandson at Madaneįa Sägarapura. These Gōihapatis were known as Įreshthļs.

The other Jaina castes known were Goläpürva, Goläläre, Paravära, Paurapaūūa etc.179 Säha Gale and Tüdä belonged to Goläpürva caste. Päāäįäha of the Gahot caste hailed from Thübona and became very rich by business. He is known to have constructed several Jaina temples and installed images in them The gotras180 of these castes were Kochchala, Väsalla, Bhäralla, Gohilla, Käsilla, Vajhalla, Vächhala etc.

The Jaina inscriptions found in the region of Gopagiri give us some idea about the Jaina castes. From the Dabkund stone inscription181 dated 1088 A.D., it is known that the two traders Ōishi and Däheāa, on whom Vikramasićha had conferred the rank of Įreshūhins, built the Jaina temple at Chaāoha, the ancient name of Dubhakunda. Further, this inscription informs that their grandfather Įreshūhin Jasuka is described as the head of a guild of merchants, which had come from a twon Jayasapura. Jaisaväla caste seems to have originated from Jayasapura but its identification is not known.

The Jaina castes known from the inscriptions were Paravära, Golälära, Goläpürva and Paurapata while their gotras were Kochhala, Väsala, Bhäralla, Goilla, Gohila, Käsilla, Vächhala, Veriyä, Käsiya, Väjhhala, Pedela and Įvanabļhära.182 The Narwar inscription dated 1284 A.D. (V.S. 1341 A.D.) of the time of Vajvapäla ruler Mahäräja Gopäla mentions a trader named Räma of Bansavala gotra hailing from the village Sevayika.183

Täraīasvämļ observed no distinction among different sects, and there was no difference between the upper and lower castes. His followers were divided into twelve castes (1) Charaīägara, (2) Äyudhyä, (3) Asäūļ,  (4) Goläläre (5) Rüiramana, (6) Karaīägara, (7) Samaiyä, (8) Näyaka, (9) Niyamļ, (10) Kämadamana, (11) Rajatasodhiyä, and (12 Paramära K’atrļ. There was no fanaticism among the followers of these castes. Mutual marriages, interdining were permitted among the followers of these castes.184

Uttara Pradesh : It seems that some of the Digambara Jaina castes such as Lambakäńchuka, Budhela, Goläsäränvaya and Golasićgära originated in Uttara Pradesh. Lambakäńchuka is found in the image inscriptions dated VS.S. 1412, V.S. 1509, V.S. 1525, V.S.1413, V.S. 1734, V.S. 1760, 1520, V.S. 1760, V.S. 1534, V.S. 1722, and V.S. 1471 found at Mainapuri.185

Buāhela Jńati has been mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1791, 1772 and 1766. Originally Buāhela was merely a gotra of Maćbhechü or Lambakańchuka caste but it became a separate caste between V.S. 1590 and V.S. 1670 because of some social dispute. Goläsäränvaye caste is found in the image inscriptions V.S. 1525, V.S. 1686, V.S. 1474, V.S. 1511 and V.S. 1515 and Golasićgärä-räõgä gotra in V.S. 1688.

Khaīdelaväla caste has been mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1783, V.S. 1520, V.S. 1675, V.S. 1822, and V.S. 1436 while Agraväla in V.S. 1234, V.S. 1537. V.S. 1529, V.S. 1545, 1549 and V.S. 1642. Jaisaväla caste is known from the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1628, V.S. 1601, V.S. 1531, V.S. 1537 and V.S. 1437. Krakeįa Jńäti-Barahaāä gotra has been mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1551, Dhäkau (Dharakaāa) in V.S. 15, Nagara Kotela in V.S. 1411, Pule caste - Khemija gotra in V.S. 1688, Mahima caste in V.S. 1588 and Rähata caste in 10.

It seems that Krakeįa Jäti and Kakasļna Jäti were one and the same. Kharauä gotra became separate from Golänära and became independent caste. Nagara Kotera Gotra or caste became famous after the village Nagara Kota in Punjab. At one time, it was a holy place of the Hindus and the Jainas. Mähima Vaćįa is known as Mahiyä caste. Varahiyä kula was converted into Varaiyä caste.186

The Įvetämbara castes such as Osaväla, Įrļmäti and Prägväūa have been mentioned in the inscriptions of the 15th and 16th centuries. A few Jaina image inscriptions prove that Įrävakas of Mahatiyäīa (Mantrļdaļya) settled at Jaunapura. These inscriptions187 prove that people of these castes migrated from Rajasthan and settled in Uttara Pradesh.

Maharashtra : The metal Jaina image inscriptions from the 14th to 16th centuries found at Bombay, Nagpur, Amaravati, Chandaväāa and Manamäāa near Nasik, Nasik, Balapura, Karanja, Chalisaganva, Bhadravati and Sirpura prove that the Įrävakas of Osaväla, Prägväta, Įrļmälļ and Palliväla castes migrated from Rajasthan to Maharashtra and settled there.188 Įrļ Väyaāa caste has been mentioned in the metal image inscriptions189 of V.S. 1488 and Moāha caste in V.S. 1616.190 The Mahatļyaīa (Mantrļdalļya) caste been mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1516 of the three Jaina images.191

Bihar : The Įrävakas of Mantrļdalļya caste migrated to Bihar from Rajasthan and settled at different places. There is a Mahitiyäna Muhallä named after the caste Mahitiyäīa in Patna. They got constructed Jaina temples and Dharmaįäläs.192 The name of this caste is mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1504, V.S. 1519, V.S. 1524, V.S. 1606 and V.S. 1686.193

The Įrävakas of this caste got Jaina temple built at Vaibhäragiri and Vipulagiri at Räjagōiha. The Įrävakas of the Įvetämbara castes namely Osaväla, Prägväta and Įrļmälļ migrated to Bihar from Rajasthan as known from the Jaina image inscriptions of the 15th and 16th centuries. The Jaisaväla caste194 of the Digambaras has been  mentioned in the Jaina image inscription dated V.S. 1638 while that of Bagheraväla caste in the inscription195 dated V.S. 1694.

South India :  The Vļra Baīajigas of the South followed Jainism. Some agricultural sections of the South were devoted to Jainism. In the inscriptions of South India, the names of the castes are not found mentioned. In some inscriptions, their designations and professions are found mentioned. Gävuīāa or Gäćuīāa196 was the designation of village headman. It is also known that Goāä or Gauāä Kammaūakära197 was the name of the mint official. Pergaāe or Heggaāe was the name of the city official.198 Sämanta199, Mahäprabhu200, Daīāanäyaka201, Mahävaõgavyavahari202 and Mahäpradhäna203 are the title names of the Jainas.

It is noticed that these castes were associated with the particular Saćghas, gaīas and gachchhas — The Humbaāa caste was related with the Surat branch of Balätkära gaīa, the Lamechü caste with the Aūera branch, the Paravära caste with the Jerahaūa branch and the Khaīāelaväla caste with the Delhi-Jaipur branch. The Agraväla caste was connected with the Mäthura gachchha of the Käshūhä Saćgha, the Hümaāa caste with the Nandļtaūa gachchha and the Bagheraväla caste with the Läāavägaāa gachchha.


       1.      Jaina Sampradäya Įikshä, p. 656.

       2.      Jaina Bhäratļ, Vol. XI, No. 11.

       3.      NJI. III, p. 28.

       4.      Ibid., No. 2328.

       5.      APJLS., No. 611.

       6.      NJI., No. 2325.

       7.      NJI., Nos. 1131 and 1295.

       8.      NJI., No. 1101.

       9.      HOO., p. 353.

    10.      NJI., No. 988.

    11.      NJI., Nos. 2084 & Jaina Sampradäya Įļkshä, p. 625.

    12.      Some distinguished Jainas, p. 36.

    13.      Ibid., p. 37.

    14.      Ibid.

    15.      Ibid.

    16.      NJI., III, No. 5372.

    17.      HOO., p. 166.

    18.      NJI., I, 2334.

    19.      Ibid., 2577.

    20.      Ibid., II, 1285.

    21.      Bhagavän Pärįvanätha kļ Paramparä Kä Itihäsa, p. 1109.

    22.      NJI., Pt. I & II.

    23.      Jaina Sampradäya Įikshä, p. 626.

    24.      NJI., No. 2317.

    25.      Ibid., No. 2404.

    26.      Jaina Sampradäya Įikshä, p. 628, Gaddä Įaha was the brother of famous Bhainsä Įäha.

    27.      NJI., No. 1062.

    28.      Jaina Sampradäya Įikshä Įäha pp. 635-637.

    29.      NJI., No. 2186.

    30.      Jaina Sampradäya Įikshä, p. 637.

    31.      NJI., No. 1079.

    32.      NJI., No. 1877.

    33.      Jaina Sampradäya Įikshä, p. 638.

    34.      NJI., No. 1267.

    35.      Jaina Sampradäya Įiksha, pp. 639, 640 and 641.

    36.      NJI., No. 1317.

    37.      HOO., p. 312.

    38.      Ibid., No. 542.

    39.      NJI., 1991.

    40.      HOO., p. 393.

    41.      Jaina Sampradäya Įikshä, p. 622.

    42.      NJI., No. 1192.

    43.      Jaina Sampradäya Įikshä, p. 628.

    44.      NJI., No. 2189.

    45.      Jaina Sampradäya Sikshä, p. 631.

    46.      Bhagavän Pärįvanätha Kļ Paramparä Kä Itihäsa, p. 1109.

    47.      NJI., No. 2253.

    48.      NJI., No. 1957.

    49.      Jaina Sampradäya Įikshä, p. 634.

    50.      APJLS., No. 113.

    51.      Jaina Sampradäya Įikshä, p. 634.

    52.      HOO., p. 427.

    53.      NJI., No. 2136.

    54.      NJI., No. 2114.

    55.      HOO., p. 509.

    56.      Jaina Pustaka Praįasti Saćgraha, No. 35.

    57.      Jaina Sähitya Saćįodhaka Evam Jainächärya Ätmäräma Įatäbdļ Smäraka Grantha, Gujaräti Vibhäga, P. 204.

    58.      Srļ Jaina Gotra Saõgraha, pp. 13-23.

    59.      Prägväūa Itihäsa — Introduction, p. 12.

    60.      NJI., No. 1166.

    61.      Ibid., No. 295.

    62.      EJI., No. 1163.

    63.      NJI., No. 1676

    64.      Ibid., No. 412.

    65.      Ibid., No. 413.

    66.      Ibid., No. 2329.

    67.      Ibid., No. 2464.

    68.      Ibid., No. 830.

    69.      Ibid., No. 38.

    70.      Ibid., No. 391.

    71.      Ibid., No. 1993.

    72.      Ibid., No. 1974.

    73.      Ibid., No. 1956.

    74.      Ibid., No. 1967.

    75.      Ibid., No. 1932.

    76.      Ibid., No. 2085.

    77.      Ibid., No. 1224 & 1227.

    78.      Ibid., No. 737 & 823.

    79.      Ibid., No. 577.

    80.      Ibid., No. 2333.

    81.      Ibid., No. 2292.

    82.      Ibid., No. 2429.

    83.      Ibid., No. 750.

    84.      Ibid., No. 2370.

    85.      Įri Jaina Gotra Saćgraha, pp. 13-23.

    86.      Ojhä Nibandha Ÿaćgraha, p. 25.

    87.      NJI., No. 1614.

    88.      Ibid., No. 2151.

    89.      Srļ Jaina Gotra Saćgraha, p. 50 (Introduction).

    90.      Ibid.

    91.      NJI., No. 947, 948 and 150.

    92.      Ibid., 621.

    93.      Ibid., 1214.

    94.      Ibid., 1308.

    95.      Ibid., 1778.

    96.      Bhagavän Pärįvanätha Kļ Paramparļ Kä Itihäsa, p. 544.

    97.      Manuscript in the Įästra Bhaīdära at Ajmer.

   98.     ž¢«ŠU‹Ź‹Źć’— ‚¢. 1250 üŹĖ Ķ‹‚¢ÉŹŠ ‚Ź ¦UŹ”Œ«ŠU ÷Ź. ”ŖŹ„UŹ ¬ČņŹ „U¦U¬ĮĆ Ņ‡ŹŹž ‚ČŒĖ 1 ‡ŹČŻ²§– (Inscription on the image of white marble in the temple of Siõghļjļ  at Jaipur).

    99.      PS., p. 138.

100.      PS., P. 175.

101.      PS., p. 96.

102.      PS., p. 2.

103.      See above, p. 81.

104.      PS., p. 177.

105.      See above, p. 79.

106.      PS., p. 89.

107.      See above, p. 81.

108.      ‚¢Ć 1703 Ņ‡ŹŹž Ź‚Š ¬²ĮĆcŠUĆŹ ó ’«UŹ üŹĖ „UŹÕĖŸŹÕ ¬²įŹĮƖ

109.      See above, p. 81.

110.      PS., p. 4.

111.      See above, p. 81.

112.      See above., p. 80.

113.      PS., p. 63.

114.      J.S. Įikshä, p. 128.

115.      Ibid., p. 113.

116.      See above, p. 81.

117.      PS., p. 29.

118.      PS., P. 190.

119.      Vļraväīļ, Vol. VII.

120.      See above, p. 12 (F.N. 2).

121.      ‚¢Ć 1590 Ź„U ‚ČŒĖ 9 üŹĖ Ķ‹‚¢œŠ ¬„UŹ«U’Ź ŖŁņŹŠ ‚Ź„UĆ ¬ČņŹ žŠĆŹ– (Ins. on Daįalakshaīa Yantra in Jaina temple of Paūodi at Jaipur).

122.      ‚¢Ć 1799 Ö’ŠcŠU ‚ČŒĖ 10 ‚ŁŠ üŹĖ Ķ‹‚¢œŠ ŻČ¢§ŒŻČ¢§ŒŹųŹ’Źøć’Š Į’‹Ź‹Ź ŖŁņŹŠ ”¢œ„UĖ Ą‹”Ė ¬²ĮĆĮcŠUĆ¢– (Ins. on the metal image of Lüīakaraīajļ Paīāyä, Jaipur.)

123.      PS., P. 99.

124.      Ibid., 169.

125.      Ibid., p. 170.

126.      Ibid., p. 177.

127.      Ibid., pp. 44 & 77.

128.      See above, p. 81.

129.      EI., V. XXIV, p. 84, Verses, 82-83.

130.      IA., V. XX, See Table of Pontifical Residences, p. 57.

131.      Manuscript in the Įästra Bhaīāära of Ajmer.

132.      JSAI., p. 134.

133.      ARRMA., Yr. 1926-27, No. 10.

134.      NJI., No. 438.

135.      Ibid., No. 727.

136.      Ibid.,  No. 628.

137.      PS., p. 147.

138.      PS., p. 98.

139.      Inscription on Yantra in the Jaina temple at Jaipur.

140.      See above, p. 72.

141.      Įrļ Bhagavän Pärįvanätha Kļ Paramparä Kä Itihäsa, p. 550.

142.      Ibid., p. 548.

143.      PS., p. 85.

144.      Ibid., p. 119.

145.      Ibid., p. 82.

146.      Ibid., p. 97.

147.      Įästra Bhaīāära Įrļ Digambara Jaina Mandira Sambhavanätha Baāä Bazära, Udaipur.

148.      Anekänta, Vol. 13, p. 124.

149.      Ibid., p. 124.

150.      Anekänta Vol. 13, p. 124.

151.      JSAI., p. 468.

152.      Anekänta, Vol. 3, p. 124.

153.      Ibid.

154.      JSAI., p. 468.

155.      Anekänta, Vol. 4, p. 610.

156.      Jaina Pustaka Praįasti Saćgraha, Nos. 52 & 93.

157.      Manidhärļ Įrļ Jinachandra Süri, p. 74.

158.      NJI, I, Nos. 48, 236, 482.

159.      Ibid.

160.      NJI, No. 778.

161.      Ibid, I.

162.      NJI, I, No. 119, No. 292.

163.      E I, XXXV.

164.      Aradgs, 1929-30.

165.      CII, VII, pp. 118-119.

166.      Malwa Through The Ages, p. 512, No. 6.

167.      Ibid, No. 7.

168.      Ibid, No. 8.

169.      Ibid, p. 2.

170.      Malwa Through the Ages, P. 9.

171.      Malavańchala Ke Jaina Lekha, Nos. 50, 162, 254.

172.      Ibid.

173.      Ibid.

174.      Ibid., Arhat Vachana, V-4, pp. 261-63.

175.      E I, XXXVI, pp. 121-23.

176.      Arhat, V-4, pp. 262-63.

177.      E I.I. pp. 147-152.

178.      Ibid, pp. 135-136.

179.      BBDJI, III, p. 109.

180.      Ibid.

181.      E.I. II, pp. 232-240.

182.      BBDJI, III, p. 109.

183.      ARADGS,  V.S. 1904, No. 15; Gwalior Räjya ke Abhilekha, No. 149.

185.      Kamta Prasad : Pratima Lekha Saćgraha.

186.      Kamta Prasad : Pratimä Lekha Saćgraha.

187.      NJI, I.

188.      Muni Kantisagar : Jaina Dhatu Pratima Lekha Samgraha.

189.      Ibid., No. 79.

190.      Ibid., No. 30.

191.      Ibid., Nos. 158, 159 and 173.

192.      Maindhärļ Įri Jinachandra Süri, p. 20

193.      NJI, Nos. 239, 270, 186, 215, 216, 217, No. 257, 271, 272 and 192.

194.      NJI, No. 221.

195.      Ibid, No. 228.

196.      JSLS, V, Nos. 18, 36.

197.      Ibid, No. 80.

198.      Ibid, Nos. 81 and 96.

199.      Ibid, No. 41.

200.      Ibid, No. 54.

201.      Ibid, No. 55.

202.      Ibid, No. 122.

203.      Ibid, No. 150.