It is clear from what has been said in the earlier chapters that karmic matter flows into the soul with every action, whether mental or physical and that the fusion of spirit and matters takes place only when the soul is rendered receptive, or negative, in consequence of its desires. It would follow from this that complete freedom can be attained only by checking the continuous activity of mind and body which is the cause of fresh Asrava, and by the elimination of the accumulated deposit of karmic force from the soul. Hence, the first thing to do is to bring under control the organs of action which act as doorways to the ingress of the enemy. This amounts to saying that perfect control must be put on mind, body and speech, which are the three inlets for the particles of karmic matter to enter into the soul. The process of checking the inflow of fresh matter through these doorways is called Samvara, which is of two kinds, namely (i) Bhava Samvara and (ii) dravya Samvara. The former of these two kinds of Samvara signifies the control of passions, emotions, likes and dislikes, and the latter, i.e. dravya Samvara, the cessation of the influx of the particles of matter.


     Now, since passions and emotions only arise by virtue of unsatisfied desires, he who would bring them under control must begin by renouncing his desires in the first instance. Similarly, since dravya Asrava* takes place through the doorways of mind, body and speech, the controlling of the unchecked activity of these inlets of karmas is equally necessary for the aspirant for release from the bondage of 'sin'. To this end the following rules have been laid down by the omniscient Tirthankaras for the guidance of their non-involved brethren: (*Karmas are generally dealt with under two heads: (i) Bhava karmas and (ii) dravya karmas. Of these, Bhava karmas signify different kinds of mental states of the soul, and dravya karmas the material forces forged in consequence of those mental states. This distinction if also observed in respect of Asrava, bandha, Samvara, nirjara and Moksha. We thus have Bhava Asrava signifying the condition of receptivity or negativity, which is favorable for the influx of matter into the soul, and dravya Asrava, the actual inflow material itself. Similarly, Bhava bandha, Bhava Samvara, Bhava nirjara and Bhava Moksha have reference to mental attitude, and dravya bandha, dravya Samvara dravya nirjara and dravya Moksha to the physical side of the question.)


     1. The control of mind, speech and body (Gupti).

     2. The cultivation of the habit of carefulness (Samiti) in respect of the following five particulars:

     (a) Walking, so as not to injure any living being;

     (b) Speech so as not to cause pain to any one by offensive, disagreeable language, or by a careless use of words having a tendency to incite others to violent deeds; (c) Eating so as not to cause injury to any living being;

     (d) Handling things --begging bowl, books and the like, with which there is a great danger of injury to small insects; and,

     (e) Evacuation and disposal of faces, urine and the like.


3. The observance of the rules of the das-lakshana (consisting of ten rules or commandments) Dharma (path), viz.

     (a) Forgiveness,

     (b) Humility,

     (c) Honesty or straight forwardness,

     (d) Truthfulness,

     (e) Purity of mind, i.e. the avoidance of passions,

     (f) Mercy and control of senses.,

     (g) Tapa (asceticism, i.e. the performance of acts of self-denial, in order to bring the pure attributes of the soul into manifestation),

     (h) Renunciation (the giving of gifts, non-attachment, and the like),

     (i) Avoidance of greed, and

     (j) Chastity


     4. Constant meditation on the following twelve forms of reflection (Bhavanas):


     (i) Anita Bhavanas 'All things are transitory in the world; no condition of existence therein is everlasting; it is useless to be attached to the forms of perishable things; they can only cause pain and suffering; Dharma (religion) alone is one's true friend; friends, relations, health, wealth, beauty, strength and the like shall all desert one some day; Atma alone is nitya (eternal); he alone has to taste the fruit --Sukha (happiness) and Dukha (misery)--of his actions; therefore one's Atma alone is the fit object of attachment.'


     (ii) Asarana Bhavana-- 'None can help the Jiva in his troubles, he alone has to bear his pain and suffering; friends, relations, wife and children are powerless to combat suffering and disease; Dharma is the only protector of the helpless; Dharma enables the Jiva, by his own power, to surmount all obstacle therefore Dharma should be practiced under all circumstances. One should also be devoted to the five kinds of Teachers (Arihanta, Siddha, Acharya, Upadhyaya and Sadhu), who preach the true Dharma.


     (iii) Samsara Bhavanas --'Endless is the cycle of transmigration; painful is every form of life; there is no happiness in any of the four conditions of existence; Devas, human beings, animals and residents of hells are all involved in pain and misery of some kind or other; Moksha alone is blissful and free from pain; the wise should, therefore, only aspire for Moksha; all other conditions are temporary and painful.'


     (iv) Equate Bhavanas --'Alone does the Jiva come into the world; alone does he leave it to be re-born elsewhere; alone does he bear the consequences of his karmas; therefore, one should bestir oneself for the destruction of karmas.'

     (v) Anyatva Bhavana --'Soul is distinct from the body; it is also distinct from one's wife and child; at the moment of death it leaves them all --its body, relations and the like-- behind when one's body even is not one's own, what good is to be had out of regarding any one else as one's own?'


     (vi) Asuchi Bhavana-- 'The body is full of foul matter; it is constantly passing out filth; if its skin be removed it would cease to be attractive, it cannot be purified by unguents and scents; it is only a store-house of impurities; faces, saliva etc., does it contain; fool, indeed, is he who allows such a body to become his master; it is to be treated as a slave.'


     (vii) Asrava Bhavana-- 'Asrava is the cause of the influx of karmas; all kinds of evil arise from it; the wise should know and understand the nature of Asrava, and control his conduct.'

     (viii) Samvara Bhavana (meditation on the nature of Samvara).

     (ix) Nirjara Bhavana (meditation on the nature of nirjara Tattva).

     (x) Loka* (universe) Bhavana (one should meditate on the form, material and nature of the three worlds.


     (*Meditation on the form of the universe, its principle divisions, and the conditions of life which prevail there in, is called the Loka Bhavana. The infinity of Akash (space) is divided into two parts, the Lokakasa (universe) and the Aloka Akash (the region beyond the universe). Nothing but pure space is to be found in the Alokakasa, while the Lokakasa contains the remaining five substances, namely, Jiva, matter, Time, Dharma and Adharma, without which there can be no universe. The form of the universe (Lokakasa) is that of a spindle resting on half of another, and resembles the figure of a man standing with his arms akimbo. The middle part of this man-shaped universe is called the madhya Loka (the middle region), the upper the urdhva Loka (celestial region) and the lower the adho Loka (the nether region). The celestial region consists of sixteen heavens on eight stories, nine upper heavens (graivey Akash), nine anudishas and five Anuttara (still higher regions of Devas), with the place of residence of the Siddha Atma at the extreme top. The madhya Loka comprises a very large number of continents and seas, with the Jambu Dvipa, of which our little earth forms a part, in the center. Below the madhya Loka are the dwellings of certain kinds of beings --bhavnavasin Devas and others of their type. Below these are the seven hells, one on the top of another, while the lowest part of the universe is called nigoda.


     As regards the conditions of life, which prevail in the different parts of the universe, the Devas enjoy great elicits which increases the higher ascend. In the lowest heavens, the Devas and Devangnas (wives of Devas) enjoy long life and co-habit like human beings; they have no bones in their bodies, which are resplendent and shining, and capable of assuming any desired form by the mere force of will. As we rise higher in the celestial region, the method of the gratification of sex-passion becomes less and less gross in form --in some heavens satisfaction resulting from mere contact, in others from perception, conversation, and so forth --till it finally disappear in the Graiveyakas, where there are no Devangnas.


     Longevity also varies in the different heavens, becoming longer and longer as we go up, till the longest Ayuh in the last Anuttara comprises no less than thirty-three saguaros (oceans) of years. The residents of the highest Anuttara have only one more earth-life to undergo before final emancipation.


     In the madhya Loka, human beings are found in different places, in the first two and a half continents which cover the entire region illumined by the Sun. The conditions of life differ in these regions also, owing to the influence of the motion of suns, stars, moons and other heavenly bodies. In some places men enjoy great felicity, almost equaling that of Devas, while in others, such as our little earth, the conditions of life vary with the periods of time.


     As regards the conditions of existence in hells, life is more and more painful as we descend to lower and lower regions. Duration of life also increases proportionately in the lower hells, varying from 10,000 years in the first hell to thirty-three saguaros in the lowest, i.e., the seventh. The nigoda is the place into which fall all those who commit the worst kinds of sins. These are they who may be said to go to the 'outer darkness,' in the language of the Bible. Their case is hopeless, and, although they might come out of it again, no one can say how long they might have to remain there. Excruciating pain, extreme misery and unbearable torment at the hands of their neighbors and superiors are the characteristics of existence in hells. The residents of these unhappy regions are all neuter, and spend their time in lamentation and anguish.)


(xi) Bodhidurlabha Bhavana --'Difficult is it to acquire the human form; having acquired it, it is difficult to know the truth, having known the truth, it is difficult to have faith in it; having acquired faith in the truth, difficult it is to practice it; therefore no opportunity should be lost in the acquisition of the Three Jewels (Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct).


(xii) Dharma Bhavana --'Dharma (religion) without mercy is but a form of Mithyatva (falsehood); Dharma is the reflection of divine effulgence of the Atma; without Dharma Moksha (freedom) cannot be attained; true Dharma is the source of life and joy to all living beings; Dharma, therefore, must be observed in all things.'



5. The endurance, with equanimity and cheerfulness, of the twenty-two forms of hardship (parisaha) consequent on (i) hunger, (ii) thirst, (iii) cold, (iv) heat, (v) insect-bite, (vi) nakedness, (vii) disagreeable surroundings (viii) love for the opposite sex, (ix) pain arising from the duty to be moving about, (x) discomfort caused by the observance of rules as regards sitting or lodging in certain kinds of places, (xi) suffering due to the observance of regulations concerning sleeping, (xii) abuse, (xiii) ill-treatment, (xiv) begging, (xv) disappointment from getting no alms, (xvi) disease, (xvii) thorn pricks, (xviii) bodily dirt and impurities, (xix) disrespect shown by men, (xx) pride of learning, (xxi) persistence of ignorance, and (xxii) the existence of causes which tend to interfere with faith.


6. Right conduct which includes:

     (a) Five kinds of spiritual purity

       (i) Equanimity,

       (ii)      Penalties for faults arising from inadvertence, or negligence on account of which one loses equanimity,

       (iii) Refraining from Hinsa,

       (iv) Control of passions, and

       (v) Contemplation of one's own Atma; and,

     (b) Observance of vows Ahimsa, truthfulness, non-stealing, celibacy and non-attachment to the objects of senses.


     In connection with Samvara, it is important to note that a full acquaintance with the subject of Asrava is necessary to avoid confusion of thought, in reference to the determination of the rules of proper conduct. We have already dealt with this subject in a general way in the fourth chapter, but as it is of Parmaount importance to be acquainted with the special causes of specific karmas, we shall enter into a more detailed description of them here.


To begin with the group of karmas known as the Jnana varaniya, we notice that the energies which fall under this head are all those which are characterized by the property of offering obstruction to knowledge. Their causes, therefore, must be such as have a tendency to obliterate existing knowledge or to obstruct the acquisition of truth. Analysis of these causes would show them to fall under two different heads, namely, the endeavor to hold back, conceal or evade truth, and non-exertion in the right direction for its acquisition. The former comprise all those tendencies of mind which aim at obscuring the real point in issue by evasion, perversion, subterfuge, mysticism, false interpretation, hypocrisy deceitfulness, misplaced subtlety, and the like; and the latter, such traits as physical laziness which prevent study and the acquisition of truth. According to the Jaina Siddhanta the following amongst others, are the main causes of the Jnana varaniya type of karmas:


     (1) Maintaining silence born of resentment of hatred, in the presence of one who is imparting true knowledge;

     (2) Knowing the truth and yet excusing oneself, when questioned on the plea of ignorance;

     (3) Withholding truth under the apprehension that the questioner would become equally wise;

     (4) Interfering with the advancement of truth and learning, or preventing the acquisition of knowledge;

     (5) Condemning the truth when propounded by another;

     (6) Finding fault with truth in self;

     (7) Laziness;

     (8) Indifference to truth;

     (9) Disrespectful attitude towards the Scripture of truth;

     (10) Pride of learning;

     (11) Teaching or preaching falsehood;

     (12) Running down the truly wise; and

     (13) A general encouragement of falsehood.


     There are many other such causes, which the reader will have no difficulty in ascertaining for himself. As regards the three higher forms of knowledge, the Avadhi, the Manahparyava and the Kevala jnana, they are obstructed by lack of inner concentration of mind due to sensual lust, passions, worry, and the like, since they arise in the consciousness of advanced Munis (ascetic saints), who become established in the contemplation of the Atma.


     The specific causes of the darsana varaniya group of karmic forces are those which interfere with the different kinds of perceptive faculties. Kevala darsana is the natural function of Jiva dravya, and arises from the destruction of the Ghatia karmas. The causes, which obstruct its manifestation, therefore, are all those that give rise to the Ghatia karmas. The same is the case, to some extent, with Avadhi darsana (clairvoyant vision) which also arises from a partial destruction of evil karmas. Hence, anger, pride deceit and greed, which deprive the soul of mental serenity and lead to worry and disquietude of mind, are directly the causes of the obstruction of these two kinds of darsana (perception).


Turning to Chaksu darsana (vision), its development and functioning are generally prevented by the malformation of the eyes or visual centers of the brain. In either case, it is the clogging of some part of the organic structure which is responsible for the total or partial destruction of vision, while the clogging itself is due to the lodgment of particles of matter in a place where they should not be. Improper exercise of the function of vision; such as pretending not to see, affecting disgust at the sight of a being or thing, especially when he or it happens to be an object of worship and veneration, and other like deeds which throw the organs of vision into an unnatural strained or crooked attitude, and there by allow the incoming particles of matter to find a lodgment in a place not intended for them, are the main causes of a total or partial absence of vision. Besides these, the influence of 'suggestion' as a general psychological cause of malformation is not to be ignored, and many cases are reported in the records of psychical research in which the sight of painful wounds and the like has occasioned similar conditions in the beholders thereof. Hence, acts such as pulling out the eye-balls of another from their sockets, and then feeling delight at the unhappy condition of the victim of one's fiendish tyranny, are also calculated to deprive one of vision. Delighting in interfering with another's beholding a Jaina saint, preventing him from having access to an object of worship, such as Scripture, from motives of hatred and the like, are also causes which lead to the loss of vision in a subsequent re-birth, and, may be, in this very life.


     Similar considerations also govern Achaksu darsana, which means perception with the help of the remaining four senses other than sight.


     As regards the different kinds of sleep, it is to be observed that sleep is consistent with the nature of soul, which is pure consciousness or intelligence, but is forced on it in consequences of its union with matter. Hence when the soul's union with matter becomes less overpowering in nature, as happens in the case of true Munis (ascetic saints) sleep, somnolence and all other forms of stupor which are matters of daily experience to all spiritually undeveloped souls, lose their hold on the Jiva.


     The causes of the different forms of stupor and sleep are various; they are caused by mental worry, passions, and like, and also by foods which augment somnolence, laziness and lethargy of body or mind.


     We now come to the third group of karmic energies, known as Vedaniya. Bearing in mind what has been said about the power of suggestion and the negative attitude of the soul in connection with the other kinds of karmas, it can be readily seen that the causes which give rise to the experiences of pleasure and pain must be as follows:


     (a) In the case of pleasurable feelings sympathy, gift (of four kinds, viz., of medicine, food, 'protection' and knowledge), piety, renunciation, purity of mind, speech and body, mercy, tranquillity and like, and


     (b) In the case of unhappy experiences, the causing of pain to others and also to one's own self, grief, vain regrets, weeping, and also causing others to weep, killing or injuring others or oneself, back-biting, abusing, hard- heartedness, terrorizing and all those other forms of action which are opposed to the causes enumerated under the preceding head.


     The next group of karmas, which demand our attention, is Mohaniya, which is of two kinds, Darsana-Mohaniya and Charitra Mohaniya. The causes of the former kind are, (a) showing disrespect to the Kevali (the soul who has conquered the four kinds of his Ghatia karmas and has attained to omniscience), (b) finding fault with the Scripture of truth, i.e. the teaching of Jainism, (c) regarding a true Muni as a charlatan, (d) imputing impiety to the residents of heavens, and (e) treating religion with contempt.


     Charitra-Mohaniya is caused by such conduct as the failure to control desires and passions, abuse, idle talk, causing pain to another, keeping evil company, grief, delight in injuring others, heartless-ness, back-biting, despising virtuous men, and the like. The sex-passion peculiar to women is caused by becoming deeply attached to another man's wife, and by developing habits of thought and traits of character peculiar to women; the male sex-passion by milder forms of anger and greed, by sexual purity and by having no desire for the embellishment of one's body; and the neuter sex-passion by the intensity of the four kinds of passions (anger, pride, deceit and greed) castration unnatural gratification of sexual lust, imputation of unchaste to a chaste and virtuous woman and by madly falling in love with the married spouse of another.


     The causes of the specific energies of the four kinds of Ayuh karma are those which determine the duration of the association of the taijasa and the Karma Shareers with the body of gross matter. This depends on the quality of the material of the outer body and on the nature of its association with the other two, and is ultimately traceable to the good or bad Karmas of the Jiva himself.


Of the four kinds of Ayuh karma, the first namely Deva Ayuh, depends on the Vaikriyaka sarira of Devas which results from pure thoughts and actions, such as observance of vows, non-injuring, truthfulness, chastity, non-stealing and non- attachment. According to the Scripture no one who has already engendered the Ayuh karma of life in hells (nark Ayuh) can have sufficient strength of will left to observe the five vows of a Jaina house- holder. The second, i.e. Manushya Ayuh is the fruit of actions of a middling type, such as partial control of senses, desires, passions, and the like.


     The third, or the animal form of life, is forced on the soul in consequence of slavery to senses, regardless of the means employed for their gratification. Sensual lust, deceit the preaching of falsehood for procuring livelihood, excessive grief, intense aversion to any particular being or thing, giving free reins to imagination to dwell upon the details of past or expected future experiences of sexual and other kinds of bodily pleasures, and praying for future prosperity to indulge in the delights of senses to the full, are some of the causes that lead to re-birth in the animal kingdom, and determine the longevity of the different types of animal life.


     The fourth kind of Ayuh, i.e., that peculiar to the residents of hells, is the consequence of the worst forms of falsehood, parigraha (attachment to the objects of senses, passions, evil thoughts, Hinsa (injury), and the like.


     The duration* of life in the four Gatis (conditions of life, Deva Manushya etc), is given by the Siddha Bhagawan to vary from less than 48 minutes in the human and Tiryanch kingdoms to 33 saguaros (oceans, a very large number) of years in the highest heaven and lowest hell is 10,000 years in the first hell, and the same is the shortest duration of Deva Ayuh in the lowest heaven.


*(To understand the nature of the Ayuh karma, it is necessary to bear in mind the fact that birth and death are two alternating phases of life of the soul involved in the cycle of transmigration. Neither pure spirit nor matter is, in any sense, liable to suffer death, since the unit of each is a simple, that is to say, indivisible and indestructible substance, and, therefore, not liable to disintegration.


The Karma sarira of the samsara Jiva, which is the product of the union of spirit and matter, is the factor which determines the liability to birth and death, for so long as it exists-- and it is only destroyed just prior to the obtainment of final emancipation-- it remains liable to changes of form resulting from the processes of inflow of matter into, and of its removal from, the constitution of the soul. Time, the ubiquitous medium of change, aptly called kala (death), because of a change of condition being the essence of death, also tends to bring about a dissolution of form, in consequence of the operation of bodies on one another. Thus, while the bondage of the soul is prolonged by the fresh influx of matter, great changes take place periodically, qualitatively and quantitatively, in the composition and structure of the Karma Shareer. When the soul's association with its outer body is rendered impossible in consequence of these changes, or from any other cause, it departs from it, and is then said to die. Its death, however, is a signal for a fresh outburst of its organizing activities elsewhere, for it is immediately attracted into a new womb, and at once proceeds to organize-- mechanically, no doubt-- a new outer body for itself. The force which determines the length of the period of the association between the soul and its outermost body is called the Ayuh karma. This association is liable to come to an end either

 (1) Naturally, as the culmination of the incessant processes of change and readjustment going on internally, or (2) By the separation of the soul from its gross body, in consequence of the impairment or destruction of some vital organ or organs. The distinction between these two kinds of causes of death lies in the fact that, while the association of the soul with its gross body is rendered impossible in consequence of the changes in the structure of the Karma Shareer in the one case, in the other it is due to the impairment or destruction of some vital organ of the outermost body itself. Hence, premature death is a possibility of experience where the outermost body is liable to be destroyed accidentally, but not where it enjoys an immunity from accidents, as is the case with the Vaikriyaka body (of Devas and residents of hells), the parts of which, as the Scripture shows, immediately join again on being pierced or cut. Those who maintain that no one can die before his time, necessarily deny premature death, but they forget that the force which regulates the natural duration of life necessarily resides in the Karma sarira, while an accidental termination of life is the result of forces operation from without. The un-consumed residue of Ayuh karma is, in cases of accidental death, dissipated at once.


     It is also evident from the nature of the Ayuh karma that the idea of a perpetuation of the physical life is a self-contradictory one. The Ayuh karma is like a lump of sugar placed in a flowing channel of water, and is bound to be dissolved sooner or later. Nor is it possible to reinforce a force generated in a past life, for the nucleus of the past is like the effervescence of aerated water which cannot be augmented by any means.)


  There is no premature death in the celestial or nether regions, though the beings belonging to the human and Tiryanchas Gatis may die before the exhaustion of their Ayuh karma.


     The causes of the principle Nama karma prakriti broadly speaking, resolve themselves into two general types the Shubha (auspicious) and the Ashubha (inauspicious). Those of the first kind are pure holy thoughts, straightforwardness, honest behavior, frankness candor, fair-dealing, love of truth, and the like; while those of the second are trickery, dishonesty, perversion of truth, falsehood, cunning keeping false weights and measures, preparing false accounts, making faces mimicry, prejudice fanaticism, merriment at the malformation of others, and all other actions of a similar type which imply a distorted frame of body, or mind, or both.


The causes of the Tirthankara Nama karma prakriti, the holiest and most auspicious of all the Shubha energies of karma, are: 1 perfect faith, 2 control of passions, 3 observance of vows, 4 constant meditation on the Tattvas, 5 fear of re-birth (samsara), 6 unstinted charity, 7 performance of austerities, 8 protection of Munis (ascetics) engaged in Tapa, 9 nursing and otherwise tending sick saints, 10 devotion to the omniscient Tirthankara and reflection of His virtues and attributes, 11-12 reverence for the Acharya (Pontill, the Upadhyaya (Teacher or Preceptor), 13 reverence for the Scripture, 14 due observance of the six essential rules of conduct [(i) daily meditation, (ii) praise of the 24 Tirthankaras, (iii) salutation of the Master, (iv) Self- contemplation with a disclaimer of the sense of attachment of the physical body], 15 teaching and preaching the doctrines of Jainism, with a view to remove the darkness of ignorance from the world, and 16 cherishing great love for all true believers.


     It is worth while to note that the Nama karma is chiefly concerned with the formation of the limbs of the physical body which is organized by the soul with its own inherent energy. At the end of each form of life a mechanical re- adjusting of the 'liquid' compound consisting of the Jiva and the matter of its two inner bodies, the Karma and the taijasa, takes place, altering its constitution and the type of its rhythm, in obedience to the influence of the forces stored up in the mass. The resulting form is the seed of the next life, the rhythm of which represents the sum-total of the forces which are to come into play in the body to be organized in the new surroundings to which it is immediately mechanically drawn. The number of these types of rhythm-- Plato would have called them 'Ideas'-- is 84,000,000 as given in the Scripture. It is the rhythm of the seed like compound of spirit and matter which, consisting, as it does, of the different kinds of karmic energies, is responsible for the formation of the various limbs of the body. Each time that the soul, enshrouded in its two inner coats of matter, enters a new 'womb' suitable for the organization of a body, it absorbs or attracts to itself, particles of matter which, in consequence of the operation of the different kinds of energies, residing in the Karma sarira, are used for the organizing of the numerous bodily organs. The complexity of the organism is thus due to the complexity of the forces residing in the tiny globule of spirit and matter-- the Karma sarira.


We may now proceed to consider the nature of the causes of the seventh group of karmas, namely, gotra, which determines the circumstances of life. Obviously the status of the soul, whether high or low, depends on the status of the family in which it takes its birth; and the birth in a particular family is the consequence of its being drawn to a particular 'womb'-- the word is here used in its widest sense including the upapada,* (*Upapada is the method of birth of Devas and residents of hells, who are born without conception and attain to adolescence at once.) the Garbha,+ (+Garbha means conception in consequence of sexual congress.) and the sammurachhana* (*Sammurachhana is the form of birth in which the soul directly attracts particles of matter to itself to organize its body. It is found in those low forms of life in the animal and vegetable kingdoms which are not born after the manner of Garbha.) forms-- by the mechanical action of its inherent force, the result of its own actions in a past life.


     The type of action which lead to a low status include pride of birth, lineage, descent, beauty, or leaning, the insulting of others for their low birth, and the like, also want of respect for the Deva (holy Tirthankara), Guru (spiritual teacher) and Sastras (Scripture), and delighting in proclaiming the low status and circumstances of another. The opposite kinds of actions, such as self-abnegation, humility, worship of the true Deva, Guru and Sastras lead to birth in a high family and happy, prosperous surroundings.


     We now come to the eight and the last group of karmas, the Antaraya. Its causes may be briefly said to consist in those actions of the soul which tend to interfere with the full development of the functions and faculties, as well as with the freedom of action of another. The following are fairly typical of this kind of actions: preventing another from making a gift, robbing others of their success in their enterprise, spoiling and marring the enjoyment of another, or depriving him of the opportunity for the full development of his natural powers and functions. The marrying of little children or of young girls to aged men, the misappropriation of charity-funds, neglecting to educate one's children, preventing ones servants and dependents from following the path of true Dharma, and many other similar acts of omission and commission are also causes which engender the Antaraya karma. Virya or the fifth kind of Antaraya is also caused by foods, which augment laziness and foster lethargy of mind, or body, both.


     The above is a fairly complete list of the specific causes of the different kinds of karmas, and although it is possible to carry on the process of analysis still further in the domain of causality, it will serve no useful purpose to analyze these causes still further. It may, however, be pointed out here, that many of the actions described as the causes of the different kinds of karmas might, at first sight, appear to have little or no casual connection with the energies they are described as engendering, but a careful study of the motives from which they proceed and of the accompanying attitude, or condition, of the soul would at once reveal them to be true to their description. For instance, the reader may well ask what is the casual connection between the act of marrying one's children at an early age and the resultant energy of the Antaraya karma, but if he would take into consideration the state of the mind of the parent who acts in this manner, he would soon discover that the latter has no idea of the evil consequences, which result from the uniting of little ones in the bonds of matrimony, and is purely guided by what he considers to be conducive to his own pleasure, Thoughtlessness and selfishness, thus, are the causes which lie at the back of this evil practice, and these, undoubtedly, are the signs of soul's negativity, the chief cause of all kinds of weakness.


Besides this the form of pleasure which one can possibly derive from marrying one's child at an early age, being purely of a sensual type, and consisting, as it does, in the giving of feasts, the performance of notch and the like, clearly points to the fact that the mind is completely taken up with the gratification of senses.


     We thus have soul's negativity coupled with the desire for sense-gratification; and these combined lead to an influx of material particles which easily find a lodgment in, and tend to clog up, certain parts of the Karma sarira upon which depend the organizing and functioning of all bodily organs. Now, since the idea and actual sight of little children playing the role of married people is pregnant with the suggestion of the abeyance of sexual function, the inflow of matter takes place in and clogs the very centers which are concerned in the formation, development and proper functioning of the generative organs. The result is that the Antaraya karma of the third and fourth kinds is generated at once, the consequences of which shall have to be borne by the soul in its present or future life or lives.


     This one illustration practically disposes of all other karma engendering actions whose casual connection with the specific energies they give birth to may seem to be too far- fetched or remote. It should also be distinctly understood that habits play no unimportant part in the operation of the force of karma, since an action repeated a number of times has a tendency to become automatic.


Thus, the operation of the law of karma is governed by the two following rules, namely, (i) every action affects that part of the Karma sarira which corresponds to the physical organ concerned, or involved, in its performance, or in the mental suggestion relating to its performance, and (ii) every repetition leans towards the automatism of habit.


     So far as the first of these two rules is concerned, it is not difficult to perceive that the influx of matter should affect the Karma sarira in a part corresponding to the physical organ involved in the doing of any particular act, because it is the organ principally concerned in the deed, and, deed, and, therefore, the only natural seat of influx.


     As regards the second rule, also, it is clear that habit implies an unconscious intensification of the impulse to act, and means neither more nor less than the tightening of bonds, though in the case of virtuous deeds every repetition has the effect of making the bondage more and more pleasant.


     Those who do not control their passions and evil actions, thus, run the risk of becoming perfect slaves to their sway, and may have to experience consequences which they little dream of in this life.